For detailed tracking of

SEI work, please see our

UTC Reports.

Year 14 (2015–2016) was marked by tremendous script proposal output in 2015 by Anshuman Pandey, thanks to the Google Research Award. Script work identified for the year includes proposals for extended Egyptian Hieroglyphs, Proto-Cuneiform, and a number of African scripts.  A meeting on the Khitan scripts is planned in China, in August 2016, made possible with a grant from the Luce Foundation. The project leader will also give a talk at Digital Humanities 2016 in Kraków, Poland, with Carlos Pallan (Bonn) on the efforts to encode the Mayan hieroglyphs in Unicode. The current NEH grant ends in December 2016.


Year 13 (2014–2015) has seen continued activity, including a script meeting in Nepal with the user community in October, supported by a Wikimedia Foundation grant, and a Google Research Award

for 2015 for script work to be conducted by Anshuman Pandey.

In May 2015, a Henry Luce Foundation grant was received (through the Unicode Consortium) for

work to help incorporate Asian scripts in the international character encoding standards, under the direction of Deborah Anderson. The first meeting was held in October 2015 in Tokyo on the Soyombo and Zanabazar Square scripts.


Year 12 (2013–2014) has seen final approval of Anatolian Hieroglyphs, first proposed in 2006. Also approved were the historic scripts Mongolian Square and Hatran. The Project Leader applied for, and received, a grant from the Henry Luce Foundation to support a meeting in Beijing in December 2013 that brought together Tangut experts and encoding experts to discuss the Tangut repertoire. A long list of scripts remain in-process as additional information on them is still being gathered. Research and requests from users have resulted in many scripts being added to the "to-be-encoded" list (see the List of Scripts page).


Year 11 (2012–2013) is the final year of the third NEH grant and the Google Research Award, but work continues. Two proposals for modern scripts, developed through the project, have been approved (Warang Citi and Pahawh Hmong), as have five historic scripts (Old Permic, Caucasian Albanian, Siddham, Multani, and Early Dynastic Cuneiform).


Year 10 (2011–2012) saw additional historic Near Eastern scripts being approved (Psalter Pahlavi and Manichaean), the African script Mende Kikakui, and various scripts from South Asia (Mahajani, Modi, Tirhuta, and Pau Cin Hau). The Project Director gave an invited presentation in Brasília, Brazil, on the Importance of Script Encoding for Multilingualism in the Digital World.


Year 9 (2010–2011) was a year marked by the approval of two SEI proposals by Anshuman Pandey on various Indic scripts (Khojki and Khudawadi), as well as approval of SEI-sponsored script proposals by Michael Everson on Bassa Vah, Nabataean, and Palmyrene. The Project Director received a second Google Research Grant to support ongoing work of the project.


Year 8 (2009–2010) was the final year of the second NEH grant, and the beginning of a third NEH grant. Proposals for the Indic script Takri, as well as Old North Arabian and Arabic mathematical alphabetic symbols were approved, and many other proposals were drafted and out for review.


Year 7 (2008–2009) included work on Javanese, Old South Arabian, Mandaic, Vedic accents (with Peter Scharf of Brown University and experts in India), and other scripts. The Project Director received a Google Research Grant to aid in the work of the project. She also gave presentations on Unicode and the project at a Digital Humanities conference in Oulu, Finland, and at the Internationalization and Unicode Conference in San Jose.


Year 6 (2007–2008) was marked by additional support from a second grant from the NEH, and work on a successful proposal for the modern Bamum script, as well as several ancient Near Eastern scripts (Inscriptional Parthian, Inscriptional Pahlavi, and Imperial Aramaic). Work continues apace on a variety of other script proposals.


Year 5 (2006–2007) saw the submission – and acceptance – of completed Middle Kingdom Egyptian hieroglyph proposal! The first NEH grant for the project concluded in 2007 with over 18 scripts being approved, ranging from modern scripts (such as Balinese, Ol Chiki, and Cham) to historic scripts (including Avestan, Lycian, Lydian, Carian, and Egyptian hieroglyphs).


Year 4 (2005–2006) saw continued work on the Middle Kingdom Egyptian hieroglyph proposal, work to encode 5,910 Tangut (Xixia) characters, and more!


Year 3 (2004–2005) included work on a large proposal covering nearly 1000 characters in the Gardiner set of Middle Kingdom Egyptian hieroglyphs.


Year 2 (2003–2004) was marked by continued support for work on script proposals (including Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform, Phoenician, Old Persian cuneiform, N'Ko, Glagolitic, Coptic, and Buginese). A number of articles appeared on the project (see the Press page). The N'Ko proposal was developed with the financial and moral support of UNESCO within the framework of Initiative B@bel.


Year 1 (2002–2003) of operation with seed funding provided by an anonymous benefactor, the Script Encoding Initiative has successfully shepherded a number of Unicode proposals through the standards process, including Kharosthi (written by Andrew Glass and Stefan Baums, University of Washington), several proposals for missing Greek characters (submitted by Maria Pantelia and the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae project at UC Irvine). Deborah Anderson has given a number of presentations on the SEI project, including the Electronic Metastructure for Endangered Languages Data conference (Ypsilanti, Michigan, August, 2002 and Lansing, Michigan, July 2003), the Internationalization and Unicode Conference (San Jose, CA., September 2002; Atlanta, September 2003) the annual Society of Biblical Literature meeting (Toronto, November 2002), and to the UC Berkeley Unicode and Text Encoding Working Group (Berkeley, CA, December 2002). These talks have been aimed at informing the linguistic and scholarly community of the endeavor and to encourage wider participation. Also, a number of grant proposals were submitted to funding agencies.










Script Encoding Initiative

c/o Deborah Anderson

University of California, Berkeley

Department of Linguistics

1203 Dwinelle Hall #2650

Berkeley, CA 94720-2650





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SEI 2017