English-Arapaho dictionary

DRAFT -- last updated June 1, 2006

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Contact Lisa Conathan -- conathan(at)berkeley(dot)edu -- with additions, comments or corrections.

List of contributing speakers

Acknowledgements and sources

List of abbreviations


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


A

a lot
nó'ot- pv much, a lot
howoh- pv many, much, a lot
howúhnéniinóó' vii 1) there is a lot , 2) there is too much
bee3- pv a lot
a
céése' na a, one, another
abandon
noo3- vta 1) to leave s.o. behind, 2) to abandon s.o.
abdomen
wonót ni-dep abdomen, belly
able
ni'- pv potential, able to
ni'ítoo- vai 1) to do something well, 2) to be able to do something
about
hi'ííhi' particle 1) instrumental, with, 2) about, concerning
hi'- pv instrumental, with, by means of, about
bebenéh particle about, approximately, roughly
above
hihcébe' particle 1) above, up, 2) in heaven
acceptable
ni'óó- vii to be good, nice, acceptable, ok
accident
cée3- pv by accident
céé3too- vai to do something by accident
cée3xóhetí- vai to get oneself to a place by accident, get oneself into a bad situation
accompany
nii3neniib- vta 1) to be with s.o, accompany s.o., be with s.o., 2) to support s.o., stand by s.o.
nii3óón- vta to go with s.o., to accompany s.o.
néí'iníí3oon- vta to accompany s.o. closely on a trip or errand
accomplish a goal
kóhkutoo- vai to accomplish one's goal
accomplish
ceestówoo- vai 1) to succeed, 2) to accomplish something
accord
niihen- pv by oneself, of one's own accord
accustomed to
nóo3ííton- vta to be or get accustomed to s.o.
nóo3ínoo'oo- vai to have gotten used to something or someone
ache
hesowowutii- vai to ache, hurt
no'oxóéhi- vai to ache, be sore
sesiini'oo- vai to ache
acquire
biisíínowóó3it- vti acquire a skill or ceremony by watching others carefully
across the river
hóóxonó'oo particle across the river, on the other side of the river
across
cebtóxotii- vai to lay things across one another, criss-cross
tokóóxuunííhi' adv across, on the other side
adolescent
honóh'oe na (male) adolescent, teenager, youth, young man
adorn
teexóó3ei'i- vai to have things upon oneself (e.g. a soldier adorned with medals)
advise
hiiseineeb- vta to advise s.o., tell s.o. to do something
afraid
híis- vta to be afraid of s.o., fear s.o.
tiit- vti to be afraid of s.t., fear s.t.
híít- vti to be afraid of s.t., scared of s.t.
héí3ecoo- vai to be afraid
African American
wo'oteenih'óó3oo na black person, African American person
after
toh- pv when, because, after
tohuu- pv when, because, after (habitual aspect)
afternoon
hiiskoh'uusiini- vii to be afternoon
again
ci' pv 1) also, 2) again
co' pv again, back, returning
ce' pv again, back, returning
ci' particle again
ce'ííhi' adv again
koox- proclitic again
age
neehiicxóóyeihí- vai to be of the same generation, be the same age
agree
ni'óóbetí- vai to agree with one another
ní'oob- vta to agree with s.o.
ní'oobéíhi- vai to be agreed with, have one's offer or proposal accepted
aim
sebeyoohóó3ei- vai to aim at s.t.
sebeyén- vti to aim at s.t.
air
hoowu3oow ni air, breath
airplane
niiníh'ohúúnoo' ni airplane
airport
níítohkóú'usé'i ni airport
all around
híítono'on- vta 1) to be on both sides of s.o., 2) to be all around s.o.
all the way
hóóyeinííhi' adv all the way to a place
all
hono'útoyóó- vii to be complete, all there
behííhi' adv all, entirely, as a whole
beisííhi' adv 1) all, entirely, completely, 2) everyone
boh- pv all, everyone
kónohúúhu' adv 1) all, everything, 2) most, majority
beh- pv all
beis- pv all
konóh- pv all
allative
won- pv allative, going to do something
alligator
hiincebíít na 1) water monster, 2) alligator, crocodile
allow
xóuuwoo3ib- vta to permit s.o. to do something, allow s.o. to do something
xóuuwoo3ih- vta to permit s.o. to do something, allow s.o. to do something
allright
hih'óó particle okay, all right, fine
almost
héyeih- pv almost, nearly approaching a goal
too- pv almost
wúho'ookúúhu' adv almost right, almost what I want
toonííhi' adv almost
alone
níis- pv 1) only, 2) alone
nííseihi- vai 1) to be one, 2) to be alone
níísneníí- pv alone
níisísee- vai to be alone, be left alone
along
niihííhi' adv along (e.g. a river or stream)
niihóótee- vii to be located along somewhere
already
woow particle now, already
hiis- pv already, perfect aspect
also
ci' pv 1) also, 2) again
howóó particle also, even
niixóó particle also
hííkoot particle also
niixóó particle also, in addition
altar
3í'eyoo ni 1) monument along a trail, 2) the pile of dirt in front of a sweatlodge, dug out from the firepit, 3) altar
3í'eyóonéíhiinóó' vii an altar has been set up, an altar has been established
3í'eyóonóót- vti to place an altar at a location
3í'eyóonóótii- vai to set up an altar or monument
always
tecó'on- pv always
tecó'onííhi' adv always, all the time
amiss
kóhtowúúni' vii there is something amiss, untoward
kóhtowú3ecóó- vai to think that something is amiss, feel strange about something
ancient
héétee particle 1) before, prior, previous, earlier, 2) in ancient times, traditionally
ko3éinííhi' adv of an old type, ancient
and
wo'éí3 particle or, but
noh particle and
angel
betéé3oo na 1) shadow, 2) spirit, angel
niibííniit na angel
hécesbetee3óó na angel
angry
3oxóni'éí'oo- vai 1) to look angry, 2) to frown
cesoni3ecóó- vai to be mad, angry
hesnonóóton- vta to be mad at s.o., angry with s.o.
hesinih- vta to make s.o. mad, angry
hesnónee- vai to be angry
animal
cese'eihíí na game, wild quadruped mammal, wild animals hunted for food
ankle
wonó' ni-dep 1) ankle, 2) wrist
annoucer
nooxuneihii na announcer, crier
announce
nóooxunóóhu' vii it has been announced
nóooxunóótiini' vii it has been announced publicly
nóooxunéé- vai to announce something publicly
another time
hoo3ííhi' adv 1) later, 2) next time, 3) another time
another
céése' na a, one, another
kóxuu- pv another, alternative, different
answer
hooxóénihíí3- vta 1) to answer s.o., 2) to respond to s.o.
hooxóénihíí- vai to answer, respond
ant
hééni' na ant
antelope
nisíce na 1) antelope, pronhorn antelope, 2) water strider
anthill
hééniiyoowú' ni anthill
antler
hiníínis ni horn, antler
anus
bé3it ni-dep anus
anyhow
konóhxuu particle anyhow, anyway, despite warnings
anyway
konóhxuu particle anyhow, anyway, despite warnings
Apache
ti'iihiinen na Apache person
appear good
ní'noéyotí' vii it appears to be good, looks good
appear
bisísee- vai 1) to appear, come in to view, 2) (the sun) to rise
bééyei3óót- pv it seems that, it appears that
biskóóhu- vai 1) to appear suddenly, appear running, 2) to go out (searching)
apple
bee'íce'éé' ni apple
appreciation
bébi'íni- vai to give thanks, show appreciation
approach
nééyeiníh'ohu- vai to fly close by, to approach by flying
neehéyei'on- vta to approach s.o.
neehéyei'- vti to approach s.t.
neehéyeikúútii- vai to approach something rapidly
neehéyeikóóhu- vai to approach something running
neeheyéísee- vai to approach something walking
approximately
bebenéh particle about, approximately, roughly
April
bénii'owuusíís ni April
apron
se'éíctoot ni apron
Arapaho Lodge
hinono'oowu' ni 'Arapaho Lodge', identified as the 'fifth dance' in Kroeber's "The Arapaho"
Arapaho Tribe
hinono'eiteen ni Arapaho Tribe
Arapaho
Bo'óóciinén na Northern Arapaho
Nóówunóno'ei na Southern Arapaho
hinonó'eisóó na young Arapaho person
hinóno'eitíít ni Arapaho language
hinóno'úsei na Arapaho woman
hinóno'éí na Arapaho person
hinóno'éí' na Arapaho (pl.)
nóno'éinííhi' adv in the Arapaho way
hoowuniihinen na Lower Arapaho
nóno'éinííne'etíít ni the Arapaho way of life
arise
koheí'i- vai get up or stand up (from a sitting or lying position), arise
arm band
niisiheswouh ni arm band
arm
beecét ni-dep 1) hand, arm, 2) a constellation of five stars
bénes ni-dep arm
híítonóó3ee- vai to arm oneself, get one's weapons
armpit
3éi3é' ni armpit
around
hííneenííhi' adv by turning around, in a turning around manner
híínee- pv turning around, reversing direction
noo'óee- pv around (a spot), in circles
noo'óeenííhi' adv around
3ebhíín3ííhi' adv around (circumventing) there
arrange
níítei'óó- to be arranged in single file
arrive home
no'eeckóóhu- vai to arrive back at one's home
cé'no'eeckóóhu- vai to arrive back home
arrive
híitísee- vai to come in the direction of the speaker, arrive where the speaker is
nó'úúhu- vai to arrive at camp
no'uxóóton- vta to arrive at s.o.'s location, come to s.o.
no'úh'ohu- vai to arrive by flying
no'kóóhu- vai to arrive by running
níitísee- vai to arrive from someplace
no'kóóhuuhéí- vai to arrive on horseback
bíí'onísee- vai to arrive propitiously, show up at just the right time
no'úhcehí- vai to arrive quickly, run or ride up to a place
nó'ceikóóhuuhéí- vai to arrive riding toward the speaker
nóhohoonííno'úsee- vai to arrive somewhere on foot while hurrying
no'úhcehéíhi- vai to have arrived quickly at a place, have just gotten somewhere in a hurry
no'- pv to reach the terminal point of a linear path, arrive
arrow
ho3 ni arrow
néic ni arrow
arrowhead
wóosóó3 ni arrowhead, flint
artery
be'íb na vein, artery
artist
niiwoowó3onóheit na artist
ash
ce'í3ee ni ash
ho'esciibis ni ash tree, scientific name Fraxinus pensylvanica
ashamed
teyeihi- vai to be ashamed
teyeihei- vai to be ashamed for someone
Asian
niih'éínookút na 1) an East Asian person, 2) someone who resembles an East Asian person
aside
ceibísee- vai to move to the side, move over, get out of the way
ask
nokóóyeiníiitowóót- vti to ask for s.t. through the process of fasting
noton- vta to ask s.o., ask s.o. a question
níiítowóó- vai to ask for something for oneself
kóónee'éébi- vai to ask for something seriously, in the proper manner
asleep
nókohu- vai to sleep, be asleep
aspen
bíiít ni 1) quaking aspen, scientific name Populus tremuloides, 2) elms, scientific name Ulmus spp.?
assemble
hoo'éikóóhu- vai to assemble together, run together
hoo'einéíhi- vai to be together, assembled
hoo'eikóni' vii (a group or tribe) is assembled
assistant
ho3ío' na a young man who serves as a helper, assistant or runner during a ceremony
aster
bííhceyínoo'óó' ni flower of the aster family, Asteraceae spp.
síísííyeinóxu' ni a plant, possibly aster, scientific name Asteraceae
Asteraceae
bííhceyínoo'óó' ni flower of the aster family, Asteraceae spp.
attached
héíbiní- vii to be stuck, attached to something
héíbi- vii to be stuck, attached to something
héíbi- vai to be stuck, attached to something
néibí'ini- vii to be (habitually) attached to something or someplace
attack
bisííten- vti 1) to attack s.t., 2) to raid s.t.
bisííton- vta to attack s.o., raid s.o.
bisíítoo- vai to attack
attractive
hi3ówoonéíhi- vai to be good-looking, attractive, pretty
attractive
noxoséíhi- vai 1) to be good looking, attractive, 2) to be sweet
auger
tónooxóhoé ni auger
August
niihóónkóo'úúniisíís ni August
aunt
nehéi na-dep my aunt
automobile
niiniihencebkóóhut na automobile, car
autumn
céénkoo' ni 1) fall, autumn, 2) October
tóóyouni- vii to be fall, autumn
tóyounííhi' adv in the autumn
tóyouní- vii to be autumn
available
níi3iní- vii 1) to be held, possessed, 2) to be available, at one's disposal
awake
hoowóto'óó- vai to be awake
away
beebei'ón particle far away, way over there
cesisíh'ohú- vai to fly away
honohúbe' particle there, away from here
awl
kokóubéí ni awl
ax
ho'onóóx ni ax

B

baby
téí'yoonehíhi' na baby, small child
back and forth
hiince'ísee- vai to pace, walk back and forth
back fat
nonii ni the back fat of a buffalo
back
níicibísee- vai to walk to the back, walk to the rear
co' pv again, back, returning
ce' pv again, back, returning
níicíbe' particle in back, especially in the back of the camp, in the rear
ce'íisííhi' adv back again in that direction
néé'eetéébe' particle in the back (e.g. of a tipi)
backbone
wótotóoy ni-dep backbone, spine
backrest
wohunohóé ni ?backrest, pillow
bacon
nih'óó3ouwóxuu ni bacon
bad
woxútoo- vai 1) to do something wrong, do something bad, 2) to sin
woxóuubéíhi- vai to feel bad
woxéíhi- vai 1) to be bad, mean, 2) to be ugly
badger
woh'ooó na badger
bag
ce'éinóx ni container, can be used for e.g. a bag, box, luggage, purse, satchel, trunk
ho'úwoonó3 ni parfleche, bag for jerked meat
touse3óo ni pouch or bag for tobacco, pipe, porcupine quills, etc.
ce'éíyoó ni 1) container, 2) paper bag
ho'úwoonóx ni rawhide bag
baked goods
nisíkoc ni cake, baked goods, pastry
baking powder
nisonóxoh'óe ni leavening agent such as baking powder or yeast
bald eagle
nooke'éibeh'éí na bald eagle
héétese'éit na bald eagle
biihtése'éít na bald eagle
bald
bihtesé'ei- vai to be bald, have a bald spot
bale
beenóókuhu' ni bale (e.g. of hay)
beenookhú'u' ni bale of hay
ball bearings
béí'ci3eiceeteyehí3i' na (pl.) ball bearings
ball
koho'owooó na ball
banana
nóóhousóó' ni banana
band
Hoxoo'o3inéno' na (pl.) one of four Arapaho bands identified by Kroeber, said by Kroeber to have been on the South Canadian river in Oklahoma
bank
hoxtóóno'óúni- vii there is a bank, steep slope, or cliff there
hoxtóóno' ni bank, cliff
baptize
touse'eneihi- vai to be baptized
bar
benohéíno'oowú' ni bar, saloon
barberry
cécinbiicííxo ni creeping barberry, scientific name Mahonia repens
barely
noxow- pv 1) very (intensifier), 2) barely, 3) just now
bark
beebee- vai (a dog) to bark
hinóoóx ni bark
wóhbee- vai to bark
barrel
ce'éíbes ni 1) box, 2) barrel
bat
woséín3e'enéíhii na bat
bath
tóusébi- vai 1) to swim, 2) to take a bath, bathe
bathe
tóusébi- vai 1) to swim, 2) to take a bath, bathe
hiinouu- vai 1) to swim around, 2) to bathe
tóúsebííxohéí- vai to be taken to bathe
bathroom
céénokuhcehéíno'oowú' ni outhouse, bathroom, restroom
biihííno'oowú' ni bathroom, privy
tóúsebííno'óówu' ni bathroom
battle
bóó3etí- vii there is a fight, there is a battle
bóó3etí- vai to fight with one another, do battle
bóó3etíít ni fighting, war, battle
be
nohuusóho- vii that's how it is, let it be that way
cebii'óónoo- vii to come to be, come to pass
héntoo- vai 1) to be present, 2) be in a particular place, be located somewhere
nenéé- vii it is it, that is it
cebíí'oo- vai to come to be, come into being
bead
ceenééteeyóó' ni bead
ce'íbinóotí' ni bead
beaded
kotóhuu- vii to be beaded
beak
bé'is ni-dep 1) nose, 2) beak
beans
wonííhiiho' na beans, scientific name Fabaceae spp.
bear fat
woxniinen ni bear fat
bear paw
woxse'eihtoo ni bear paw
bear
nóókox na 1) white bear, 2) polar bear
nonóókunéseet na grizzly bear
woxuusóó na bear cub
heebétox na 1) big bear, 2) grizzly bear
wox na bear
bearberry
noh'úwuno ni bearberries, scientific name Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (berries)
noh'úwunbííse' ni bearberry bush, scientific name Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bush)
beard
biixoxko'onoo ni (buffalo) beard
beardtongue
wookúúno' ni penstemon, beardtongue, scientific name Penstemon spp.
beat
hoyóó3- vta to win against s.o., beat s.o. in a contest
beautiful
bébeenéíhi- vai to be beautiful, pretty
Beaver Rim
héétcowóúúte' placename Beaver Rim, WY
beaver
hébes na beaver
hebesokoy ni beaver lodge
because
toh- pv when, because, after
tohuu- pv when, because, after (habitual aspect)
hóókoh particle because
become
níí3o'oo- vai to become like something else
bed
híísibí- vai to lie down, go to bed
hooó ni bed
bedbug
bei'téi na-dep louse, bedbug
bee
kóho'ok na bee, wasp, yellowjacket, hornet
beehive
koho'okuunokoy ni beehive
beetle
ce'biisee na beetle
before
hééscii- pv before, while not yet
heecét proclitic before (another event), while not yet
beg
kóónee- vai to beg for something, beseech someone for something
begin
ce3- pv begin to do something, inceptive
césis- pv to begin to do something
césistoo- vai to begin to do something
behave
teiitoonéíhi- vai 1) to be quiet, 2) to sit still, 3) to be well behaved
belch
bée3ícei- vai to belch
believe
hee3óóbeenéét- vti to believe in s.t., consider s.t. true
hí3oowótonéíhiinóó- vii to be believed
hí3oowoton- vai to believe
hee3óóbeeneb- vta to believe in s.o.
híí3oowóton- vta to believe s.o.
híí3oowót- vti to believe s.t.
hí3oowót- vti to believe s.t.
hí3oowú3ecoo- vai to believe something to be true, to have faith in something
bell
nohcéíneeyóo ni bell
belly button
bé3in ni-dep 1) belly button, 2) umbilical cord
belly
wonót ni-dep abdomen, belly
béé3ií ni 1) belly, paunch, 2) lining of the paunch of an animal
bellyband
hóóxuuku ni bellyband, saddle girth
belt
koyootéé na belt
bent
hone'éékuu- vai to stand bent down
hookow- pv bent
berdache
hoxúx na 1) berdache, transvestite, 2) also applied to a homosexual person (of either sex)
berry
bííbinee- vai to eat berries (usually straight from the bush)
3ó'owú'uwonee- vai to grind or crush berries
hóóxehíb ni buffalo berry, bull berry
sée3íbino' ni berries or cones of pine or juniper trees, scientific names Juniperus communis, Sabina spp., Pinus spp.
bííbinoot ni 1) berry, 2) extended to other small roundish fruit such as grape or raisin
beseech
kóónee- vai to beg for something, beseech someone for something
beside
kokóon- pv on the side, beside
kókoo'ún- vta to be beside s.o.
best
honóuunowóót- vti to do s.t. in the preferable or best way
bet
hóó3o' particle I bet it is so
better
hííneyó'otii- vai to remediate a situation, make things better
beyond
cebe'éítii- vai to do something more than the limit, go beyond a limit
beyond
cebe'éítoo- vai to do something more than the number of times allowed, go beyond a limit
cebííhi' adv beyond, past
cebe'einííhi' adv beyond (a place, a limit)
Big Dipper
téébiicéso'o' na Big Dipper
Big Lodge person
béesóowúunén na one of the five 'subtribes' identified by Kroeber, member of the branch of the greater Arapaho-Gros Ventre tribe which went by this name, variously translated as 'Great Lakes person,' or 'big lodge person'
Big Wheel
bééxotii na Big Wheel
Big Wind River
hóteiniicíe ni Big Wind River
big
heebe3ííhi' adv large, big, immense
beeseihtee- vai to have big feet
bees3ee3ei- vai to have big hands
héébetóóx na big horse
heebe3inén na big man
heebetóóxei na big wolf
béései3e- vai to be big, large, have a big body
bees- pv big, large
beesóó- vii to be big, large
beeseinoehi- vai to be big, large
heebe3nenítee na 1) big person, 2) monster
bigger
beesísei- vai to be an older or bigger girl or woman
birch
nííyoo'óé ni red-bush, red birch, mountain birch, water birch, scientific name Betula fontinalis
béé'exootí' ni 1) mountain birch, 2) Osage orange tree
bird
nii'ehííhi' adv having to do with eagles or birds
nii'ehíísoo na young bird, nestling
nii'éíhii na 1) bird, 2) eagle
nii'ehííni- vai to be a bird, be an eagle
bird-like
níí'ehiinííhi' adv in a bird-like or eagle-like manner
biscuit root
nii'éétee' ni a plant known as bear root, biscuit root, pungent desert parsley or consumption plant, scientific name Lomatium dissectum, described by Kroeber as "a greasy, carrot-like root" (TA:32)
bit
beenihéhe' particle a little bit, few
bite
toyóób- vta to bite s.o.
ko'oot- vti to bite s.t., take a bite of s.t.
bitter root
neníícisoxú'oo' ni a medicinal root, possibly bitter root, scientific name Lewisia rediviva
wóóxcoo' ni bitter root, scientific name Lewisia rediviva
black
wo'oteenih'óó3oo na black person, African American person
wo'teen- pv 1) black, 2) dark
wo'teenóte'éí- vai to have black hair
wo'óteeyóó- vii to be black
wo'teenéíhi- vai to be black
blackbird
nih'eenó' na blackbird
béebé'3e'enéíhii na red-winged blackbird
níhoonnih'éeno' na yellow-headed blackbird
bladder
hinís ni bladder
blame
hó3oowub- vta to blame s.o.
blanket
hóu ni blanket, robe
nééceenóú ni the chief's blanket
hóoxóúbee- vai to wear a blanket, cover oneself with a blanket
bleed
be'ííni- vii to bleed
bless
bee3h- vta to bless s.o., pray for s.o. to be successful
níísih- vta to bless s.o., pray over s.o.
níísihkuu3- vta to bless s.o. quickly or rapidly
woxú'uuwu- vai to bless something
cecéecó'ohuun- vai to ceremonially bless
ceceecó'oh- vta to ceremonially bless s.o.
wóxu'óóntoo- vai to perform a blessing ceremony
blessed
woxú'ootííni' vii 1) it has been blessed, 2) power or authority has been granted ceremonially
ceceecéíhi'ííhi' adv in a blessed way
blink
céheekú- vai 1) to blink one's eyes, 2) (the Thunderbird) to make lightning, 3) lightening to flash
céheekúhcehi- vai to blink
hííne'éicéheekúhcehí- vai to blink one's eyes rapidly while turning one's head
blizzard
nookubee3ei na 1) white owl, 2) used figuratively to refer to snowy weather or frost
blood
hinót na blood clot
bé'eek ni gravy, blood gravy
be' ni blood
blouse
biixúút ni 1) shirt, blouse, 2) dress
blow one's nose
nii'ííbee- vai to blow one's nose
blow
nó'oo'héése- vii to be blown far from camp
blue
cenééteeyóó- vii to be blue or green
bluebell
ceenééteené'einóó' ni bluebell, scientific name Mertensia ciliata
blunt
hoowtoxu'óó- vii 1) to be blunt , 2) to be dull
blush
bo'óúu'éí'oo- vai 1) to turn red, 2) to blush
board
se'íbes ni board, plank
boat
3iiw ni boat, canoe, ship
bobcat
to'úú3eebexóókee na bobcat
to'uu3i'eibexóókee na bobcat
body
béései3e- vai to be big, large, have a big body
beténeyóoó ni-dep (human) body
bogeyman
bííbeet na bogeyman
boil
ko'youhu- vai to cook or boil something for oneself
sii'ihéíton- vta to put something in water (to cook or boil) for s.o.
boil
sii'ihwó'oyei- vai to put something into a pot or kettle to cook or boil
kóótee- vii to boil
kóóhob- vti to boil s.t.
bone
hix ni bone
book
wo3ónohóe ni paper, book, notebook, mail, anything made of paper
boot
touhóóno'óh ni boot
border
towóoxéisé' vii 1) something is marked by breaking, a route or road has been made by breaking things (as in railroad construction), 2) a border is marked
bored
ciisibínoo'óó- vai to get tired of something, find something monotonous
borrow
hotóónee- vta to burrow in to s.o.
hotóónee- vti to burrow in to s.t.
both sides
híítono'on- vta 1) to be on both sides of s.o., 2) to be all around s.o.
bother
nosóúnoxuuh- vta to keep bothering, harassing or persecuting someone
coo'u3éí'i- vai to bother people, harass people
nó'cou'u3éí'i- vai to come to bother or harass people
néenonih- vta 1) to continually bother s.o., 2) to continually persecute s.o.
noxúuh- vta to bother s.o., persecute s.o.
cóú'utii- vai 1) to bother something or someone, 2) to play with something casually
neenóóxobei- vai 1) to bother someone's horses, 2) to take someone's horses
cou'uh- vta to bother s.o.
bottle
niinéét ni 1) nipple, 2) bottle for feeding a baby
ceeníhcoo' ni a transparent container such as a bottle, jar, or glass
bottom
nókowúúhu' particle down here, at the bottom
céno'úúhu' particle at the bottom (when looking down from the top)
bow
beeté' ni bow
bowl
cee'einóó' ni bowl
bowstring
beetéyook na 1) bowstring, 2) string or rope made of sinew, 3) also extended to other string not made of sinew
box elder
hoxúús, hoxwúús ni box elder tree, scientific name Negundo aceroides
box
ce'éinóx ni container, can be used for e.g. a bag, box, luggage, purse, satchel, trunk
ce'éíbes ni 1) box, 2) barrel
boy
honóh'oehíhi' na little boy
hecéxonóh'oe na young boy
boyfriend
nebii'ó'oo na-dep my sweetheart, my girlfriend, my boyfriend
bracelet
wooxón ni 1) bracelet, 2) also used for jewelery in general
wohnóx ni bracelet
braid
nii3óótee'ee ni braid
nii3óotééni- vii to be braided
nii3óotééni- vai to be braided, be in braids
nii3óótee'ein- vta to braid s.o.'s hair
nii3óótee'en- vti to braid s.t. (hair, rope), make a braid
brain
betééc ni-dep brain
branch
hitéi ni branch, treelimb
brave
hiisíítookoxúúnee vai to earn a feather, as a symbol of a brave deed
hiihóho'nen- vta to act bravely towards s.o.
hiihóho'néíhi- vai to be brave
bread
cebiteenoc ni fry bread
co'céí- vai to fry bread
có'coo ni bread, loaf of bread
có'oc ni bread, loaf of bread
breadroot
hiicénii Indian breadroot, scientific name Pediomelum esculentum
break wind
cééti- vai to fart, break wind, pass gas
break
tebikuutii- vai to break something
breast
bé3en ni-dep breast
breath
hoowu3oow ni air, breath
hoowo3óów ni 1) breath, 2) air, 3) life
nííhon3óówu- vai to keep one's breath for a long time, avoid running out of breath for a long time
breathe
hoowo3óówo- vai to breathe
breechcloth
wonóut ni breechcloth, loincloth
breeze
teiise- vii to be breezy
breeze
kóxo'tóése- vii to be breezy
toeese- vii to be cold and breezy, there is a cold breeze
bridge
hooxuu3ííw ni bridge
bridle
ciitohko'neeyoo ni bridle
bring a story
nó'oo3íte'e- vai to bring a story here from another place
bring back
neyéíxohowóó- vai to try to get/bring things back for oneself
bring here
ceixotii- vai to bring something here
bring home
no'óókoo3- vta to bring s.o. home
no'óokéí'i- vai to bring something home, transport something to one's house
bring
no'oxoh- vta to bring s.o.
céíxoh- vta to bring s.o. in the direction of the speaker
bíí'ono'oxoh- vta to bring s.o. to a place just at the right time
hiitíxotii- vai to bring something here from someplace
céi3- vta to bring something here to s.o.
nó'uxoton- vta to deliver something to s.o.
nó'uxohéíhi- vai to have been delivered to a place
broad
cííxoyoo- vii to be broad
broken
towóónee- vai to have a broken leg
tebé'ei- vai 1) to be broken off at the head, 2) to have the top broken off
tówo'oní- vii to be broken
broom
wotí'ohóe ni broom
brother in law
nei3ébi na-dep (my) sibling in law of the opposite sex, (my) brother in law (woman speaking), (my) sister in law (man speaking)
neyóo na-dep my brother in law
brother
nééhebéhe' na-dep younger sibling, younger brother or sister
néteséí na-dep (my) sibling of the opposite sex, (my) brother (woman speaking), (my) sister (man speaking)
neeséh'e na-dep older brother, also used to refer to the person fulfilling the role of 'older brother' in a ceremony or dance
brown
nisíh'oo- vii to be brown
brush fire
kotee- vii 1) (a large conflagration) to give off smoke, to burn, 2) there is a brush fire
brush
hiikóó' ni 1) woods , 2) brush
hookoo'eeni- vii (brush) to be thick
kooxúúhu' particle in the brush
no'otoo'óé- vii to be brushy
hi3oowúukóó- vii to be in the brush, under the brush
buck
censíb- vta (e.g. a horse) to throw s.o. off, buck s.o. off
bucket
nóókohóé ni 1) water dipper, 2) medicine switch, 3) bucket
nookoheinooo ni bucket
buckskin
biixót ni buckskin
buckwheat
biiscihin ni buckwheat, scientific name Eriogonum spp.
hónookó3ookúnu' buckwheat, scientific name Eriogonum spp.
buffalo berry
hóóxeehíbino' ni buffalo berry, scientific name Shepherdia canadensis
buffalo robe
hii3einoonóu ni buffalo robe
Buffalo Wheel
híí3einóónotíí na Buffalo Wheel, Medicine Wheel (a site in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming)
buffalo
hóóxehíb ni buffalo berry, bull berry
biihí3ii ni 1) buffalo chips, 2) diaper powder made from dried buffalo chips
híí3einóón ni 1) buffalo, 2) a herd of buffalo
biixóu ni buffalo cow robe
biis na buffalo cow
nónooni na young buffalo cow, approximately 2-3 years old
henéécee na buffalo bull
bug
bíísee na 1) bug, insect, 2) ?worm
bugle
níitóuu3óó ni 1) whistle, 2) flute, 3) bugle
build
nii3oxoeyéí- vai to build a fence, repair a fence
Bull Lake, WY
Nééceiní'ec placename Bull Lake, WY
bull
hóóxehíb ni buffalo berry, bull berry
bullet pouch
kokuyoono3oot ni 1) powder horn, 2) bullet pouch
bullsnake
hóóxeesíísiiyei na bullsnake, gopher snake
kookousiisiiyei na bullsnake, gopher snake
bulrush
hónoowúuxó' bulrush, scientific name Scirpus or Schoenoplectus spp.
bumblebee
héébe3kohó'ok na bumblebee
bundle
cee'eeku3oo ni a bundle of offerings
burn
kotee- vii 1) (a large conflagration) to give off smoke, to burn, 2) there is a brush fire
co'ouuté3ee- vii to be flaming high
ceh'éí- vai burn incense (from cedar)
kohóóxoénoo'óó' vii (a fire) is burning
kóhooxoénoo'ooni- vii (a fire) is burning
béetoxúh'u- vai to be completely burned up
héébete3ééyei- vai to burn something in a large fire
béete3ééyei- vai to burn something up
néétoxúh'u- vai to burn to death
cíístonóót- vti to keep s.t. burning a long time, keep s.t. burning continuously
burned
beexúuto'ówu' ni burned land, a burned area
burp
bée3ícei- vai to belch
burr
woníseineehíís ni 1) burr plant, 2) a figure representing a burr painted on the body during the Tomahawk Lodge ceremony, 3) wild licorice, scientific name scientific name Glycyrrhiza lepidota,
bus
nihoonotíí ni schoolbus
neyei3einotíí ni schoolbus
bush
cóó'oo'éé' ni shrub, bush
busy
neetónoohúú- vai to be busy
nonó'o3on- pv to be busy or engaged with something
but
wo'éí3 particle or, but
'oh particle but
butcher
céniihéíhi- vai to be butchered
céniihéí'i- vai to butcher
ceníih- vta to butcher s.o. (anim. obj.)
butter
nihóóncebítee ni butter
buttercup
henéíxo' buttercup, scientific name Ranunculaceae spp.
yenéinkóóti'i ni buttercup, scientific name Ranunculaceae spp.
nííhooné'einóó' buttercup, scientific name Ranunculus glaberrimus, possibly other Ranunculus spp., also black-eyed susan and related plants, scientific name Rudbeckia spp.
butterfly
níh'ootéibéíhii na butterfly
buttock
besóo ni-dep buttocks
button
hoxkúh-d vai 1) to button up, 2) to zip up
hóxkuhuut ni button
buy
cééstoo- vai to procure or obtain something, buy something (typically for oneself)
cééston- vta to procure or obtain something for s.o., buy something for s.o.
céne3eih- vta 1) to knock s.o. down or off someplace, 2) to purchase s.o.
céne3éíh- vti 1) to knock s.t. down or off someplace, 2) to purchase s.t.
hotóónoot- vti to buy s.t., purchase s.t.
hotóónee- vai to shop, buy things
buzz
hetei'oo- vai to make a buzzing noise
heteiníh'ohú- vai to make a buzzing noise while flying (e.g. a bee)
buzzard
woxóóxobe'- pv relating to buzzards, vultures
buzzer
nohceineekúú3oo ni buzzer
by itself
niihen- pv by oneself, of one's own accord
by oneself
niihéyoo adv by oneself, on one's own
by
ceb- pv pass by

C

cable
béí'ci3eiséénok na cable
cactus
hóho'oyóóx na 1) cactus, scientific name Cactaceae spp. and Opuntia spp., 2) peyote, scientific name Lophophora williamsii
cééyookúú' ni cactus of some type, scientific name Coryphantha or (most likely) scientific name Pediocactus spp.
cake
nisíkoc ni cake, baked goods, pastry
calculate
téceenéét- vti to guess s.t., try to figure s.t. out, calculate s.t. in one's mind
calf
wookéciisoo na calf
woo' na calf (baby cow)
ci'í3 ni, na calf of leg
call
heenéti3- vta 1) to talk to s.o., speak with s.o., 2) to call s.o. over
ní'ii3éé- vai to be called by a certain name
ní'ii3éíhi- vai to be called or named
nih'óó3ounih'ééhi- vai to be called or named a certain way by Whites
néé'eesíh'iit- vti that is what they call it
héti3óótiini' vii there is calling, there is responding
hééti3- vta to call for s.o.
heetí3eininénee- vai to call for s.o., as by whistling
notéíneeb- vta to call for s.o. by making a sound, such as whistling
ní'iit- vti to call s.t. a certain name
héti3- vta to call to s.o.
3ebtéeti3- vta to call to s.o. there
céhti3- vta to call s.o. over
called
néé'ee3e'ínonéíhiinóó' vii that is how something is known, that is how something is named, called
calm
téiitoonéíhi- vai to be quiet, calm, still
téiitooyóó- vii to be calm, still, quiet
Calochortus gunnisonii
seenéí'oxúú3eet ni scientific name Calochortus gunnisonii
camp circle
nééyei3- pv having to do with a camp circle
neeyéi3kó'einííhi' adv in a close circle, as in a camp
neeyéi3einóotii- vai to camp in a circle
camp
bée3ii- vai 1) to finish camping, take down camp, 2) to leave a place behind, as in moving camp
níiítoo- vai to locate camp, be located in camp
cebiihíítooni- vii (camp) is being moved along
cebííhi- vai to move camp along, past a place
hóotéé' vii something is located there, something is arranged or laid out there, there is a camp there
hóoteení' vii something is located there, something is arranged or laid out there, there is a camp there
hóotíí- vai to camp (individually rather than as a group or tribe), to set up camp
niisóotéé' vii how the camp is, how the camp is set up
níii- vai to camp
ko'einootii- vai to camp in a circle
can
3owo3nóoó ni can
cane
hóokóto ni cane
canoe
3iiw ni boat, canoe, ship
canteen
niibecohuut ni canteen
niibecoo ni canteen
canvas
bee3o'óoó' ni canvas, denim or other stiff, densely woven cloth
canyon
bíí3oonóó- vii there is a canyon
hiicóó' vii there is a canyon there
cap
co'té' ni cap
capsize
hi3ókunoo'óó- vii to capsize
captive
wowóonííni- vai to be captive, have been captured
capture
wowóonííni- vai to be captive, have been captured
ce3- vta to catch, trap or capture an animal
ce3éíhi- vai to have ben caught, trapped or captured
tóunínoo3- vta to capture, defeat, or count coup on an enemy
car
niiniihencebkóóhut na automobile, car
card
sei'kuu3óó ni playing card
cardinal
bé'ii'éíhii na cardinal
care
hééteeniihéíhi- vai to be taken good care of
heetééniih- vta to take care of s.o. (well)
careful
néstouhu- vai to be careful
carefully
kóó'oe- pv slowly, carefully, in due time
carpet
so'oo3óó ni 1) tablecloth, mat, 2) carpet, rug
carrot
yeneinít na carrot, indian carrot, gardner's yampah, scientific name Perideridia gairdneri
carry a blanket
nííwouwu- vai to carry a blanket
carry
bííno3óóhu- vai to carry a load, pack something
nííwoho'un- vta to carry s.o.
niiwóúhu'un- vta to carry s.o. (animate object) along (e.g. on a trip)
nííwoho'ón- vti to carry s.t. along (e.g. on a trip)
3ei'iinóót- to carry s.t. or s.o. on one's back
cartilage
3ei3 ni 1) tendon, 2) cartilage, 3) muscle
carve
wo3ono'úx- vti to mark s.t., carve s.t.
níí3es- vta to carve s.o.
castrate
neecéés na gelding, castrated horse
cat
wo'óoó na cat
catch sight
3ooxúúnon- vta to notice s.o., catch sight of s.o.
catch
ce3- vta to catch, trap or capture an animal
ce3éíhi- vai to have ben caught, trapped or captured
hiisíítenéíhi- vai to have been seized or caught
hiisííten- vta 1) to catch s.o., grab s.o., seize s.o., 2) to run after s.o.
Catholic
heenínouhut na 1) Catholic priest, 2) sometimes extended to a Catholic person in general
cattleman
wóókeciinén na rancher, cattleman
cave
tonoxtééni' vii 1) there is a cave, there is an opening in the earth, 2) there is a meadow or clearing in the forest, 3) there is a tundra area beyond the forest
cease fire
ceniiyóó3eti- vii a cease fire is in effect
cedar
cooh'óee- vai to smudge or cedar
cóóh'owuun- vta to smudge s.o., cedar s.o.
bé'3einó'o ni 1) cedar, 2) juniper
bé'3ein- pv having to do with cedar or juniper (Sabina scopulorum and Juniperus communis)
bé'e3éinóoo ni cedar
center pole
no'oúúhtoohóee ni center pole (in the sun dance)
noh'óuutohóe ni the center pole of the Sun Dance lodge
center
no'oúúhtoohóee ni center pole (in the sun dance)
3óówohóú'u' particle in the middle, at the center
neehíi3éí' particle in the center, in the middle
wotees- pv into the center
centipede
hoowuho'ohteet na centipede
hoowoho'ohteihii na centipede
ceremony
beyoowú'u ni (pl.) Arapaho religious and ceremonial life, especially ceremonial dances such as the Sun Dance and dances of each of the lodges
niistoowóohúút ni a performance of a ceremony or ritual
ciibénoo'óó- vai to perform a ceremony or ritual
nii'éíhiitoowó'o ni a ceremony concerning eagles, the Eagle Way
níístoowóohu- vai to perform a ceremony, engage in a ceremony
certain
néé'ee3e'ín- vti to be certain, be sure of s.t.
chain
toukú3eibéí'ci3é'i ni chain
chainpod
3ííkonwonííhiiho' ni (pl.) possibly chainpod, peavine, scientific name Hedysarum spp., or sweetclover, scientific name Melilotus spp.
chair
3i'okuutoo ni furniture one sits on such as a chair, couch, seat
change
hóókootén- vti to change s.t.
hokoo3en- vti to change s.t.
hookoo3ítoo- vai to change the way one does something, change one's ways
hókoo3ítoo- vai to change the way one is doing something, change tactics
chaos
nónsoo' vii there is confusion, chaos, disorder
noonsóó' ni 1) chaos, 2) confusion, 3) mess, disorder
chase
héíso'onéíhi- vai to be forced to scatter due to being chased, be chased away and apart
kúhnee- vai to be chased
ce3esó'onéíhi- vai to be chased away by someone
yéihow- vta to chase s.o.
woti'éso'on- vta to chase s.o. away (permanently), remove s.o. by chasing
niicibéso'on- vta to chase s.o. back, chase s.o. to the rear
yih'óon- vta to chase s.o., chase after s.o.
no'esó'on- vta to chase s.o. to here, where the speaker is
hookootéso'on- vta to chase s.o. to their home
yéíhowóó- vai to chase something
ce3esó'owuun- vta to chase something away from s.o.
chat
ciihóuut- vai to chat
check out
néhyon- vai to inspect something, check something out
check up
néhyonóóhob- vta to inspect s.o., check up on s.o. visually
nehyóntii- vai to inspect something, check up on something
nehyóhonííhi' adv concerning inspection, concerning checking up on something
néhyoníhee- vai to be checked up on
yóónoohow- vta to check up on s.o.
check
nehyóntii- vai to check something, check up on something
cheek
becé'i'oo ni-dep cheek
cheer
xoúúnooni- vii there is cheering
xóuunéé- vai to cheer
cheerful
hónobéíhi- vai to be cheerful, happy, merry
cherish
nei'hónonih- vta 1) to hold s.o. tight or close to oneself (figuratively), 2) to cherish or respect s.o.
tóónonítii- vai 1) to hold on to something (figuratively), 2) to value something, cherish something
chest
biisícei- vai to have a hairy chest
bescóoó' ni chest
chew
seyóóko'oníí- vai to chew
seyow3ei- vai to chew
chewing gum
séyowcéí na chewing gum
Cheyenne
hítesíí na Cheyenne
Hítesííno'óowú' placename Cheyenne, WY
chickadee
híco'ooteehíhi' na chickadee
sesiicebiihihi' na chickadee
bííceyéíhii na chickadee
chicken hawk
hééyei hóókecii na chicken hawk
neséínoox na chicken hawk, scientific name Accipiter spp.
chicken
nih'óó3ounii'éíhii na chicken
chief
néécee na chief
cebeeniineecee na quarter-chief
nééceeni- vai to be chief
child
téí'yoonehíhi' na baby, small child
tei'yoonéhe' na child, infant
hecóxookei na 1) a person of small rank or stature, 2) a child, not a grown-up
hecóxookéíhi- vai 1) to be a person of small rank or stature (figuratively), 2) to be a child
hecéxookéé- vai 1) to be a child, 2) to be young
neniisóó na-dep (my) child
téí'yoonii- vai to be a child
childish
téí'yooniinóóni- vai to be emotionally immature, childish
téí'yoonootéíhi- vai to be emotionally immature, childish
children
hitéí'yoonííbi- vai to have a child, have offspring
nóó3sei- vai to have many children, many offspring
howúhsei- vai to have many children, offspring
hiníísooní- vai to have children
chimney
xouu'eeyóo ni chimney
chin
wotóhko' ni-dep jaw, chin
chipmunk
xoxooyóni' na chipmunk, striped ground squirrel
chips
biihí3ii ni 1) buffalo chips, 2) diaper powder made from dried buffalo chips
chisel
kóni'óhoee ni chisel
choke
ho3hí- vai choke
chokecherry gravy
biiné'eek ni chokecherry gravy
chokecherry
biiné'eek ni chokecherry gravy
biinínec ni chokecherry juice, chokecherry wine
bííno ni chokecherries (pl.), scientific name Padus virginiana (berries)
bíínonoo'óé' ni chokecherry bush, scientific name Padus virginiana (bush)
choose
hééneyéixóhei- vai to choose, select
chop
cih'óh- vti to chop s.t.
chosen
bíí'eenebéíhi- vai to be chosen
Christian God
beehééteiht na Christian God
beehííniisonóónibeihít na Christian God
bééteet na Christian God
Christmas
hoonóú3ootííni- vii to be Christmas
chrysalis
bííseenii3óóteeyoo ni 1) chrysalis , 2) pupa
church
henínouhúúno'óowú' ni Catholic church
béteentóóno'oowú' ni church
cigar
híicóoó na pipe, cigar, cigarette
cigarette
híicóoó na pipe, cigar, cigarette
cinch
hóóxuucihíít ni 1) girth, a band that holds a saddle on a horse, 2) cinch
Circle Dance
ko'einohowoot ni Circle Dance
circle
noo'óeekóóhu- vai 1) to run around a place, 2) to circle around a place
hooyéí'on- vta to circle or corral s.o. (e.g. a horse)
kóó'einóó' ni circle
circles
noo'óee- pv around (a spot), in circles
circular camp
neeyéi3o'óó- vii 1) there is a circular camp, 2) (pl.) (tipis) are set up in a circle for camping
neeyéi3óó' vii there is a circular camp
neyéí3oonóotéé' vii there is a circular camp located there
circular
ko'éí- pv round, circular
ko'einóó- vii to be circular, round
clap
kóe'sóhoe- vai to clap
claw
wo'ox ni-dep fingernail, toenail, claw, hoof
niiskosei- vai to have two nails, claws or hooves
clay
nookóóbe' ni kaolin, white clay for ceremonial painting, white paint
ho'éeét ni 1) paint, 2) clay
clean
hiiyoot- pv 1) pure, 2) clean
hííyoo3ínouhu- vai to be neatly dressed, wearing clean clothing
hííyootéíhi- vai to be clean, neat
hiiyootéénebéíhi- vai to be known to be clean or pure, be thought of as clean or pure
hííyoo3ítii- vai to keep something clean and pure
hííyoo3ih- vta to keep s.o. clean (primarily morally)
cleanly
hííyoo3ííhi' adv 1) cleanly, 2) properly, respectfully
clear the way
nóókoníitén- vti 1) to clear the way for s.t., 2) usher in s.t. (as in a ceremony)
clear
cihkoyóó- vii to be transparent, clear
hó3es- pv clear, clearly
cííhkoowu' ni clear water
wohou'ounoo'oo' vii (the weather) is clearing up
cíhkoowu- vii (water) to be clear, transparent
clearing
toonoxtééni' ni meadow or clearing in a forest
clearly
hó3es- pv clear, clearly
clench
co'ohóe- vai to make a fist
click
koseinóóni- vii to click
cliff
hoxtóóno'óúni- vii there is a bank, steep slope, or cliff there
hoxtóóno' ni bank, cliff
hoxotóóno' ni cliff, precipice
climb down
hoowouuhu- vai to climb down
climb up
nóh'ohóuuhúúton- vta to climb up to s.o.
climb
hóuúhu- vai to climb
nóuuhúúton- vta to climb (an. object) habitually
noxowouúhu- vai to climb close, climb closer
hóuúhuutón- vta to climb s.o.
hóuhúút- vti to climb s.t.
híixóuuhu- vai to climb to the top
teexouuhu- vai to climb up on to something
nóho'óuuhu- vai to climb upwards
cling
nei'íítehéíbi- vai to cling to something tightly, as if stuck to it
clock
hite'íyooní- vai to have a watch or clock
he'íyoó ni clock, knowledge
close by
neeyéinííhi' adv close by
niicó'owuu particle close by
close one's eyes
no'úusí'oo- vai to close one's eyes
close
too3ííhi' adv near, nearby, close to something
bee3ebééxoyoo3ííhi' adv close by and hidden
hóoxobéíhe' particle close by, near
neehéyei- pv close, near
too3- pv close, near
hokóh- vti to close s.t., stopper s.t.
híhcebee close by
neníinííhi' adv close by
bee3ebééx- pv close to, close by
niixóxo'on- vta to be close to s.o.
hiixoxó'- vti to get close to s.t.
neehéyeinííhi' adv close by
closely
nei'- pv closely, tightly
clot
hinót na blood clot
clothes
cíí3ibii- vai to put on a clothes
clothing
héixo'o ni clothing
henínouhu- vai to wear long clothing
woonínouhu- vai to wear new clothing
cloud
hiinoonó'etí- vii 1) to be cloudy, 2) to be stormy
nii'éíhiinó'et ni eagle cloud, thunder cloud
níí'eheinó'etí- vii to be an eagle cloud or thunder cloud
híínoonó'et ni cloud
wo'teeno'úxoo' vii dark clouds are gathering, the sky is getting dark
hiinóonó'oxoo'úú' vii there are clouds in the sky
wó'teenó'ete' vii there is a black cloud
nookó'eti- vii to be a white cumulous cloud
cloudy
hiinoonó'etí- vii 1) to be cloudy, 2) to be stormy
club
3oxóo ni tomahawk, club, war club
nóxowóó3oo ni war club, killing club
ce'éex ni war club, tomahawk
coat
bíísbiixúút ni fur coat
hookoubiixúút ni jacket, coat
coffee
woo'téénoowu' ni coffee
coil
noononóutóósi- vai to be coiled up, e.g. a snake
coin
béí'ci3e' ni 1) metal, iron, steel, 2) coin, money
cold
toyóow- pv cold
toyoowú' vii the water is cold, there is cold water here
toyo3iisiini- vii to be a cold day
nohokoo3oo- vii to be bitterly cold
tóyo3óó- vii to be cold
collarbone
beihooó ni-dep collarbone
collect
hóo'éíhi- vai to collect, gather something
hóo'éín- vti to collect s.t., gather s.t.
colt
bííyo3óú'u na colt
comb
houtíhii ni 1) porcupine tail, 2) comb made from porcupine quills
cih'óte'eihóo ni comb, traditionally made from the tongue of a buffalo
comb
cih'óte'éíhi- vai to comb one's hair
come about
néé'ee3óó' vii that is where something is from, that is how something came about
come here!
cihnéés vai come here! (imperative)
come home
ce'eeckóóhu- vai to come back home
come in
cíítei- vai to enter, come in
come out
bisínoo'óó- vii to come out of a place (e.g. the wind from a cave)
come together
hoo'eiséé- vai to gather, come together, have a meeting
come upon
hítes- vta to come upon s.o., run into s.o., meet s.o. unexpectedly
come
híitísee- vai to come in the direction of the speaker, arrive where the speaker is
néé'eetísee- vai that is where someone is coming from
cé'oowúsee- vai to come back down
hiitíseenóó' vii where s.t. comes from
commence
cési3oo'oo' vii it gets/has gotten started, begun
compare
tecínihii- vai to compare things with s.o. else, compare two things
completative
bee3- pv completative, finish
complete
hono'útoyóó- vii to be complete, all there
kóhkutii- vai 1) to complete a task, 2) to complete a ceremony
bée3tíí- vti to complete s.t., finish s.t.
completely
beisííhi' adv 1) all, entirely, completely, 2) everyone
conative
néyei- pv conative, try
concave
3eeyoúte- vii to be concave
concentrate
ni'koko'ú3ecoo- vai to be able to concentrate, think clearly
concerned
nonóneenów- vta to be concerned about s.o.
nonóneeneet- vti to be concerned about s.t.
condor
co'cóóniinii'éíhii na California condor
cone
sée3íbino' ni berries or cones of pine or juniper trees, scientific names Juniperus communis, Sabina spp., Pinus spp.
cone-shaped
3ouu- pv cone-shaped, pointed
3ouúyoo- vii to be cone-shaped, pointed
3ouuyéíhi- vai to be cone-shaped, pointed
confused
neini'einoohowuu- vai to be dazzled, confused
noní3oxúuhéíhi- vai to have become lost or confused due to harassment
cee'ínonéíhi- vai to be strange, confused, mixed up
confusion
noonsóó' ni 1) chaos, 2) confusion, 3) mess, disorder
nónsoo' vii there is confusion, chaos, disorder
constipated
cóóne3éíh'i- vai to be constipated
consume
hotóóbe- vai to consume something, eat something up, gobble something up
hotóob- vta to consume s.o., gobble s.o. up
contact
béxoh- vta 1) to hit s.o., strike s.o., 2) to touch s.o., make contact with s.o.
container
ce'éíyoó ni 1) container, 2) paper bag
ce'éinóx ni container, can be used for e.g. a bag, box, luggage, purse, satchel, trunk
3éíyoó ni container, cupboard, filing cabinet
continuative
nosóu- pv continue to do something, still, ongoing
continue
nosóu- pv continue to do something, still, ongoing
conversation
ciihóuut- vai to chat
converse
heenetí3etííb- vta to converse with s.o.
cook
hócoo3- vti to fry s.t., cook s.t. in a pan (usually meat)
ko'youhu- vai to cook or boil something for oneself
sii'ihéíton- vta to put something in water (to cook or boil) for s.o.
sii'ihwó'oyei- vai to put something into a pot or kettle to cook or boil
bii3béé- vai to cook, prepare food
bii3woo3- vta cook s.o.
bii3wóót- vti cook s.t.
bii3wóúhu- vai to cook for oneself
hóókuu3- vta to cook for s.o. (non-ceremonially)
bii3wóon- vta to cook for s.o. (usually ceremonially)
hookóúhu- vai to cook something for oneself
bii3wóonéé- vai to have a meal cooked for one
cooked
hiisétee- vii 1) to be cooked, 2) to be ripe
cooked
hiiséteesi- vai 1) to be cooked, 2) to be ripe
cookie
nisíkocoonéhe' ni cookie
cool
toyoobéé- vii to be cool
coot
niibiiséébit na coot, mud duck
copperhead
niibe'e'eitsiisiiyei na copperhead snake
copy
nokó3ton- vta to copy s.o., imitate s.o.
3óók3onóh- vti to copy s.t. (e.g. off a blackboard)
wo3ónkuu3óó ni copy machine, Xerox machine
cork
hokóhoee ni cork, stopper
corn
hóó'etíí ni corn, scientific name Zea mays
béskootéé ni ear of corn
corpse
3iik ni 1) corpse, 2) skeleton
corral
hooyéí'on- vta to circle or corral s.o. (e.g. a horse)
cóoó' ni 1) corral, fence, 2) trap for game animals such as elk
ko'einoxóeyóo ni corral
nii3oxoeyóó ni 1) fence, 2) corrall
correct
bebíisííhi' adv properly, correctly
bebíí3enéíhi- vai to have been corrected, made proper
hi3oobéé- vii 1) to be correct, right, 2) to be true
hí3obeéé- vii to be correct, be saying something true
hí3oobéí- vai to be correct, say something true
bebíístoo- vai to act correctly
correctly
bebíis- pv properly, correctly
cotton
hicíínee ni fleece, wool, cotton
cottonmouth
wo'teensiisiiyei na water moccasin, cottonmouth
cottonwood
hohóót na 1) tree, 2) cottonwood tree, scientific name Populus deltoides
héé3neebés ni cottonwood, scientific name Populus deltoides
hohóótinbíiítino narrowleaf cottonwood, scientific name Populus angustifolia
couch
3i'okuutoo ni furniture one sits on such as a chair, couch, seat
cougar
bexookeesóó na cougar cub, mountain lion cub
bexóókee na 1) cougar, mountain lion, 2) also extended to tiger
cough
cesíceiníbi- vai to cough
cesíceinó'oo- vai to cough
ceséceiní'oo- vai to cough
cesíceibínoo'óó- vai to start coughing
could
héíh- pv potential, could have, would have
could
héí- pv potential, could happen, could occur
count coup
tóunínoo3- vta to capture, defeat, or count coup on an enemy
tóunínee- vai 1) to count coup on an enemy, 2) to capture an enemy, 3) to defeat or kill an enemy
count
neyei3éí- vai 1) to count, 2) to read, 3) to study, go to school, be a student
neyéitíí- vti to read s.t., count s.t.
neyeih- vta to count s.o.
coup
tóunínee- vai 1) to count coup on an enemy, 2) to capture an enemy, 3) to defeat or kill an enemy
cover one's head
níí'eikúu3- vta to cover s.o.'s head
cover
niisén- vti 1) to wrap s.t., 2) to cover s.t. up
hokohóe ni 1) cover, 2) lid, 3) plug
hééce'éíci3- vta to cover s.o.'s head
kotoyóh- vti to cover s.t.
cow
biis na buffalo cow
nónooni na young buffalo cow, approximately 2-3 years old
níí3ouyóó na milker, milk cow
betebihóókec na old cow
wóókec na 1) cow, 2) (pl.) cattle, livestock
cowboy
touhóo na cowboy
coyote
koo'óh na coyote
koo'óhwuusóó na coyote puppy
crab
níískoséíhii na crab, lobster
crack
koxúnoo'oo- vii to be cracked or broken suddenly
cracked
koh'únoo'oo- vii to be cracked, split open
kóh'otí- vii to be cracked
kohe'éíhi- vai to be cracked
koho'éé' vii to be cracked, esp. cracked in half
cracker
3óuxósi' ni cracker
cradleboard
héctoonohúút ni cradleboard
cramp
hiicíto'óó- vai to have cramps
crane
hité3oo na crane, especially a sandhill crane, heron, egret
hité3oo na crane, heron
hité3ounec na water drunk when breaking a fast during the Sun dance, according to Kroeber's "The Arapaho"
cranky
ciiní'einéétii- vai to be cranky
crawl
hoocéísee- vai to crawl or slither, e.g. a snake
yíh3okúsee- vai to crawl over to a distant place
crayfish
niice'nowo' na crayfish
Crazy Lodge
nookohóókee na a dancer of higher degree in the hohookoowu' dance
hohóokóowú' ni Crazy Lodge age-grade society
crazy
hohéis na 1) crazy person, foolish person, 2) senile person
hoheisííni- vai 1) to be foolish, be crazy, 2) to be senile
hohóókee na crazy person, foolish person
hohookééni- vai to be or act foolish, crazy, to disobey social norms and mores
neséíhiinóó- vii to be wild (in a pejorative sense), crazy
crazyweed
síísííyeibii3híít ni ?locoweed, ?crazyweed, scientific name Oxytrophis spp.
cricket
biihóúút na cricket
crier
nooxuneihii na announcer, crier
criss-cross
cebtóxotii- vai to lay things across one another, criss-cross
crocodile
hiincebíít na 1) water monster, 2) alligator, crocodile
crooked
céibííhi' adv 1) turned aside, to the side, 2) in a twisted manner, in a crooked manner
cross
nookóóx na 1) cross, 2) morning star
teesokéeekóni' vii cross a river on top (of ice) as a group
hooxuu- vai to cross something
Crow Dance
houunohowoot ni Crow Dance
crow
hóuu na 1) crow, 2) raven, 3) God, Man-Above
crowbar
bíínohooó ni 1) digging stick, 2) crowbar
crown
3oo3oonei3e'ee ni the middle or crown of one's head
cruel
nó'o3óó- vii to be cruel, tough, very difficult to endure
crumble
3o'únoo'óó- vii to be crumbling
3o'únoo'óó- vai to be crumbling
crush
3ó'owú'uwonee- vai to grind or crush berries
3o'én- vti to crush s.t., grind s.t., mash s.t.
séyóúnob- vti to crush s.t. by hand, mash s.t., squeeze s.t.
3ó'o'óótiinoon- vta to crush or smash a part of s.o.'s body
séyoun- vta to crush s.o. by hand, squash s.o., squeeze s.o.
3o'én- vta to crush s.o.
séyou'ow- vti to crush s.t. by foot
cry
biiwóóhu- vai to cry, weep
hiini- vai (a dog, wolf, coyote) to cry, whimper, howl
bíxoyeinóóni- vii there are crying sounds
cub
woxuusóó na bear cub
bexookeesóó na cougar cub, mountain lion cub
cup
niisiickuuhu' ni collapsible cup made from the paunch of a buffalo
tóuyoo ni cup
cupboard
3éíyoó ni container, cupboard, filing cabinet
cured
híínentééni- vai 1) to be well, cured from an ilness, 2) to be saved
curious
bééte'ín- vai to be curious, want to know
curly
bebee'éí- vai to have curly hair
curlycup gumweed
kóúhuyé'einóú'u ni (pl.) curlycup gumweed, scientific name Grindelia squarrosa
currant
ne'íbiis ni golden currant bush, scientific name Ribes aureum (bush) and possibly other Ribes spp.
ne'íbinó' ni (pl.) golden currant berries, scientific name Ribes aureum (berry) and possibly other Ribes spp.
curse
kóotéébinoo3- vta to curse s.o., swear at s.o.
curved
nóhousoo- vii to be curved
custom
heenéistóót ni ways, customs, habits, lifestyle
cut off
koho'eikuu3- vta to cut off s.o's head
cut open
ko'óe3ikuu3- vta to cut s.o. open
ko'óe3einee- vai to have been cut open, be lying cut open
cut
koxhóotéé- vii to be split off or cut away from
tebe'éís- vta to cut s.o.'s head off
tebe'éís- vti to cut someone's head off
tóne'eih- vta to cut or knock a hole in s.o.'s head
tébes- vta to cut s.o. off, saw s.o. off
wotío'óxoo' vii it has been cut off, trimmed away
?noko3esiit ni cutting of the hair on one side
towonoxowoot ni cutting of the hair over the forehead
koxóx- vti to cut s.t. off, procure by cutting
tebéx- vti to cut s.t. off, saw s.t.
ko'óx- vti to cut s.t. with a knife or scissors
cute
noníí exclamation how cute!

D

damn
hókoun- vii to be dammed
damp
hítoyóó- vii to be damp, moist
híteyéíhi- vai to be damp
hitoo'oo- vii to be damp
dance
nóókohwóót ni rabbit dance
kóutohséinohwóót ni round dance
hoséíhiinohwóót ni 1) Sun Dance Lodge, 2) dance performed during Sun Dance
hooxéíhiinéniinohwóót ni Wolf Dance, Pawnee Dance
betéeeh- vta 1) to make s.o. dance, 2) to have a dance for s.o.
betóootnóó- vii (a dance) to occur
betóoot ni dance
cé3ohwóó- vai to begin dancing
betéee- vai to dance
betóooh- vta to make s.o. dance
dancer
betéíhii na dancer
dangerous
noxóónoo- vii 1) to be near the edge, pushing the margins, 2) to be dangerous
néstoonootéíhi- vai to be dangerous
néstoonoo3óó- vii to be dangerous
néstoonóó- vii to be dangerous
nóxoownóó- vii to be dangerous
néstoonoo3óó- vii to be very dangerous
dare
honóoyóó don't you dare!
dark
wo'teen- pv 1) black, 2) dark
bíh'iyóó- vii to be dark
bíh'iyóóni- vii to be dark
bih'inóotéé- vii to be dark in camp
bih'inóú'oo- vii to get dark
daughter in law
néeséb na-dep daughter in law (1 poss.)
daughter
notóóne na-dep daughter (1 poss)
hitoone- vai to have a daughter
dawn
seyéinoh'óóke- vii to be just before dawn, before it gets light
noho'óó- vii to dawn, be dawn
day
hesteísi' ni a hot day
híísiinííhi' adv 1) during the day, 2) in a day's time, 3) as if it were daytime
híísiini- vii to be day, daytime
híísi' ni day
heeyowúúsi' adv every day
yéiníiis ni four days
cisíiisí' vii something takes a certain number of days, is done for a certain number of days
niisíiis ni two days
daylight
nóóke- vii to be daylight, morning
nookéni- vii to be daylight, morning
daytime
híísiinííhi' adv 1) during the day, 2) in a day's time, 3) as if it were daytime
híísiini- vii to be day, daytime
noh'óóke- vii to be light outside, be daytime
dazzled
neini'einoohowuu- vai to be dazzled, confused
deaf
heeneyeicitéé- vai to be deaf and mute
decay
3o'oxousi- vii to be decaying (e.g. a tree)
woxúse- vii to be bad, decaying (e.g. flesh) rancid, rotten, spoiled
hoxúse- vii to be decaying (e.g. meat), rotten
deceitful
néhtonítoo- vai to act in a tricky or deceitful manner, do something tricky or deceitful
néhtonéíhi- vai to be tricky, deceitful
deceive
néhtoníh- vta to deceive s.o., cheat s.o.
December
honou3éíniisíís ni December
3óó3ooncécniisíís ni December
decrease
nííwo'óó- vii to decrease
nííwo'óó- vai to decrease
deep
ceyoxesnóó- vii the mud is deep
tébi- vii 1) to be deep (e.g. water, snow), 2) to be full
tebiiínoo' vii [snow] is deep
tebiiíneeci' vii (snow) is deep
deer
hé3owoonéíhii na white-tailed deer
bih'ío ni deer hide
bíh'ih na deer, mule deer
defeat
tóunínoo3- vta to capture, defeat, or count coup on an enemy
hiixóówo'on- vta 1) to make s.o. move away, drive s.o. off, 2) to defeat s.o.
hóó3onih- vta to resist s.o., defeat s.o.
tóunínee- vai 1) to count coup on an enemy, 2) to capture an enemy, 3) to defeat or kill an enemy
bíí'owoo3- vta to defeat s.o., especially in battle
delicate
ciinówouhú- vai 1) to be delicate, 2) to be touchy
ciinówóuhuunóó- vii to be delicate
ciinówóuhuunóó- vii to be delicate
deliver
no'úxoh- vta to deliver s.o.
no'úxotíí- vti to deliver s.t.
delouse
hi3ooxuh- vta to delouse s.o., pick lice from s.o.'s hair
demand
nihi'nééton- vta 1) to demand s.t. of s.o., 2) to force s.o. to do something, insist that s.o. do something
demolish
3óú'uuníítii- vti to demolish s.t.
den
cese'eihiinokoy ni den
denim
bee3o'óoó' ni canvas, denim or other stiff, densely woven cloth
Denver
niinéniiniicíihéhe' placename 1) Unknown place in central Wyoming , 2) Denver and the South Platte River in Colorado
depart
ce3éí'oo- vai to set out, set off, depart
depend on
nó'o3éé'eenebéíhi- vai to be depended on greatly
dependable
hííxonoh'oehííni- vai 1) to be mature, grown up, 2) to be reliable, dependable
ho3í'eenebéíhi- vai to be thought of as a person who can be asked to do something, be thought of as dependable
depict
wo3onísi- vii to be depicted representationally (e.g. engraved, carved, incised, drawn)
descend
yih3oonínoo'oo- vai to descend quickly towards down there
deteriorating
hetebínouhuunóó- vii 1) to be in poor condition , 2) to be deteriorating
devil
hóócoo na devil, Satan
woséii na devil
Devil's Tower
wox niiinon placename Devil's Tower, a national monument in Wyoming
devour
hóótowkuu3- vta to devour s.o.
hótoowkuu3- vta 1) to swallow s.o., 2) to devour s.o. (anim. obj.)
hótoowkuutíí- vai 1) to swallow something, 2) to devour something
dew
híítoyóó' ni 1) moisture, 2) dew
diaper powder
biihí3ii ni 1) buffalo chips, 2) diaper powder made from dried buffalo chips
diaper
tóu'cihíít ni diaper
diarrhea
hesotóot ni diarrhea
3í'iinoo'ó- vai to have diarrhea
hesótee- vai to have diarrhea
dice
to'se3oo ni die (as in dice)
die
to'se3oo ni die (as in dice)
cetó'oo- vai to be dying, about to die
yoohoot- vai to die
necénoo'oo- vai to die suddenly, be struck dead
different
kóxuunííhi' adv 1) something else, a different one, 2) somewhere else
kóxuu- pv another, alternative, different
cei'ísoo' vii 1) to be separate, set apart, 2) to be different
cé'eséíhi- vai 1) to be different, 2) to be diverse, of various types
cé'esííhi' adv 1) different, 2) diverse, various
cé'eis- pv different, various
cése'éíhi- vai to be different
cé'esóóni- vii to be different
difficult
hónouuneenóó- vii to be difficult
houneenóó- vii to be difficult
hóuuneenóó- vii to be difficult
difficulty
nó'oxúuhetí- vai to get oneself to a place by hard work, with difficulty
dig up
biscitíí- vai 1) to dig up, uncover, 2) to recover or revive something
dig
tonooxóhei- vai to dig a hole
nóoxcítii- vai to dig a hole with hands or feet
tóno'wúúhee- vai to dig a hole in the ground
nooxóhei- vai to dig, especially a hole
kóxoh- vta to dig for s.o.
koxóhei- vai to dig for something, esp. roots
nooxóh- vti to dig s.t. (e.g. a hole)
digging stick
bíínohooó ni 1) digging stick, 2) crowbar
dip
nookóhowoo- vai to dip something up for oneself
dipper
seskóuutówuu'éíhii na dipper (bird)
seskouutíínii'éíhii na dipper (bird)
direct
xóuuw- pv 1) straight, straightly, 2) direct, directly
direction
3ebííhi' adv in that direction
directional
neh- pv directional, away from the speaker and towards addressee, from here to there
cih- pv directional, towards speaker
directly
beeyóó particle 1) perfect, just right, right on!, 2) directly
dirt
ho' ni dirt
dirty
wotóxoobéíhi- vai 1) to be dirty, filthy, 2) to be unkempt
nóótoxéíhi- vai to be filthy
wotóxoobee- vii to be filthy
hoxesííni- vai to be muddy, dirty
wóówoséí- vai to use filthy language, to talk dirty
ho'úúni- vai to be dirty, be dusty
sóo3óó- vii to be dirty
sóotéíhi- vai to be dirty, messy
disappear
hinowúsee- vai to walk out of sight below a surface, disappear into the ground, dive into water
hííyoohóú' vii 1) to be nothing, for there to be none of something, 2) to disappear, vanish
híyoohootínoo'oo- vai to disappear suddenly, be absent, vanish
hinowkóóhu- vai to disappear from view below ground or water
discharge
bíísii'oot ni 1) leak, 2) discharge
discover
híico'óóton- vta to find s.o., discover s.o. in hiding
bii'íítii- vai to find something, discover something
bíí'eenéét- vti to discover s.t. abstract such as knowledge or information
discuss
kokoh'óuutíín- vai to discuss
disease
hesówobeihíít ni illness, sickness, disease
dish towel
hehíyoó ni something you wipe with, e.g. a towel, rag, tissue
disk
3o'óóbe'éiyoó ni disk (farming implement)
dismount
hoowúhcehí- vai to jump off, get down or go down quickly, dismount
disorder
nónsoo' vii there is confusion, chaos, disorder
disseminated
nih'éiseenóó- vii to be spread, disseminated
dissuade
totoub- vta 1) to dissuade s.o., to talk s.o. out of something, 2) to rebuke s.o., scold s.o., correct s.o.
distribute
cee'én- vti to distribute s.t., pass s.t. out
cee'ín- vti to distribute s.t., hand s.t. out
ditch
koho'ówu' ni 1) gully, ditch, ravine, gulch, 2) small stream
koho'wúúni' vii there is a gully, ditch or small stream there
kóh'owúúni' vii there is a gully, ditch, small stream there
dive
sii'eihcénoo'óó- vai to jump into water, dive in to water
diverse
cé'eséíhi- vai 1) to be different, 2) to be diverse, of various types
divide
koh'én- vti to divide s.t., split s.t.
divided
níh'einowóótiini' vii something has been split up, something has been divided up among people, scattered among people
divorce
kóuten- vta 1) to divorce s.o., 2) to get rid of s.o.
dizzy
néíni'éí- vai to be dizzy
do
ni'ítoo- vai 1) to do something well, 2) to be able to do something
níístii- vai 1) to do something (independent clause), 2) to make something
níístoo- vai 1) to do something (independent clause), 2) what someone is doing (relative clause)
tóó- vai to do
hístoo- vai to do
nee'eestoo- vai to do something like that, do thusly
heestoo- vai what someone does, how someone does something (relative)
doctor
notónihéíhii na medicine man, doctor, physician
notónih- vta to doctor s.o.
doctoring
nótonohein- pv medicine, doctoring
Dog Lodge
hé3owoowú' ni Dog Lodge age-grade society
dog
hoteiné3 na sheepdog
he3 na dog
dogwood
3ííkoníbino' ni 1) (pl.) snowberries, scientific name Symphoricarpos spp. (berries), 2) (pl.) dogwood berries, Swida sericea (berries)
nóhko3on ni bark of the dogwood, scientific name Swida sericea (bark)
bo'óóceibiis ni dogwood, scientific name Swida sericea
doll
béí'iisóó ni doll
neeníítoo na old-fashioned Indian doll made of buckskin
dollar
heebe3bei'ci3e' ni a dollar
domesticate
hinénto'ohúú3ton- vta to make an animal used to the presence of people, domesticate an animal
done
híístii- vai to be done, be finished doing something
donkey
bih'ihiihoox na 1) mule, donkey, 2) horned toad, horned lizard
don't
ceebéh- pv prohibitive, "don't!"
door
tecénoo na, ni door, gate
doorway
tecenóóne' ni doorway, area around the door
dough
nii3óxesnóuyóó ni dough
dove
bííteih'íí na 1) pigeon, 2) dove
down in the brush
noowúukóó- vii to be down in the brush
down there
3ebóowúúhu' adv down there
down
nókowúúhu' particle down here, at the bottom
3oonííhi' adv 1) below, less, in the middle, 2) at the summit (as of someone's head, or the course of the sun)
ceenííhi' adv down, under
noowúúhu' adv 1) down, downward , 2) South, used especially to refer to Oklahoma by Northern Arapahos
noow- pv down
cenííhi' adv down, downwards
hoowúúhu' adv down, downwards
downriver
hoowúnii'ou'oo- vai float downriver
hoowúniihííhi' adv downriver, downstream, down along a river
drag
cíitóo'ohú' vii it has been dragged inside a place
hitoo3íb- vta to drag s.o.
hitoo3íítii- vai to drag something
dragonfly
cíí'owoyéíhii na dragonfly
draw
wo3onóh- vti to draw s.t., write s.t.
wo3onóhei- vai to draw, write
wo3ónoh- vta to draw s.o.
dream
kónee- vai to dream
woxkónee- vai to have a bad dream
dress
híseinbiixúút ni dress, skirt
biixúút ni 1) shirt, blouse, 2) dress
cehcínouhu- vai to dress differently (from other people)
cíítehéé3ei- vai to get dressed
hiseinbiixuut ni woman's dress
drill
toncítii- vai to drill a hole
drink
benéét ni drink
béne- vai to drink
benii3ít- vti to drink s.t.
nííhonokóóyei- vai to go for a long time without drinking
drip
cénii'oo- vii 1) to drip, 2) to leak
wóhnii'oo- vii to be dripping (in several places)
drive
hiixóówo'on- vta 1) to make s.o. move away, drive s.o. off, 2) to defeat s.o.
nóó'eiyéí- vai to drive (a car)
drizzle
hooyeinoosoo- vii (rain) to be drizzling
ní'oonóóyeinoosóó- vii to be drizzling
drop
censénee' vii it has fallen down, dropped down
censénini- vii it has fallen down, dropped down
césin- vta to drop s.o.
cesín- vti to drop s.t.
drown
neetebi- vai 1) to get tired of swimming, 2) to drown
drowsy
nowóne- vai to be drowsy, sleepy
drum
hóho'yóóxuunó'eiihi' na peyote drum
woteiho'yeinoo ni beating drum
hó'éií na drum
biitoheinó'éií na drum for the Spear Dance
héébetó'eii na large drum, as is used at a Pow Wow
wóteihó'yei- vai to drum
drumstick
wóteihó'oyóó ni drumstick
drunk
nonsíh'ebí- vai to be drunk
dry
hííxoo'éé- vii to be dry
hííxoo'óóni- vii to be dry
hííxoo'óó- vai to be dry, dry up
dubitative
he'íí- pv dubitatave, it is doubful that
he'- pv dubitative, narrative past tense
duck
síísiikó' na duck
síísiic na duck
céneníhcehí- vai to duck
dull
hoowtoxu'óó- vii 1) to be blunt , 2) to be dull
dung
biihí3 ni manure, dung, animal excrement
dust
koo'óúúte- vii to be dusty
dusty
ho'úúni- vai to be dirty, be dusty
koo'óúú3oo- vii to be dusty
dwarf child
hecesiiteihíísoo na dwarf child
dwarf
hecesiitéíhii na dwarf, little person
dwelling
hi'íyeih'i- vai to have a dwelling place, have a home

E

each
hééyow- pv 1) every, 2) each
hééyowúúhu' adv 1) every, 2) each
hité3eicííhi' adv each one
eager
sesííhi- vai to be eager
eagle cloud
níí'eheinó'etí- vii to be an eagle cloud or thunder cloud
nii'éíhiinó'et ni eagle cloud, thunder cloud
eagle
nii'éíhii na 1) bird, 2) eagle
nii'ehííni- vai to be a bird, be an eagle
nooke'éibeh'éí na bald eagle
héétese'éit na bald eagle
biihtése'éít na bald eagle
nii'ehííhi' adv having to do with eagles or birds
heebé3ii'éíhii na 1) big eagle, big bird, 2) golden eagle
hiinookó3onit na golden eagle
wo'téénii'éíhii na 1) a term used for several kinds of black or dark birds, including a black eagle (a young bald eagle), winter bird, dark-eyed junco, grackle, 2) a female personal name
eagle-like
níí'ehiinííhi' adv in a bird-like or eagle-like manner
ear
wonotóno' ni-dep 1) ear, 2) tepee flap
béebeesétee- vai to have big ears
early
tesnohkúseic particle very early in the morning
earnest
kokónoo'obéíhi- vai to be earnest
earring
céítoo ni earring
earth
bííto'ówu' ni 1) earth, ground, land, 2) sometimes extended to mean 'floor'
hee3ei'oo' ni the Earth
east
cénohó' ni east
níítbisíseet na the east
eat
hotóóbe- vai to consume something, eat something up, gobble something up
hóótowkuu3- vta to devour s.o.
besoonobéé- vai to eat raw meat
bííbinee- vai to eat berries (usually straight from the bush)
bii3íhi- vai to eat
biin- vta to eat s.o.
bii3- vti to eat s.t.
bíí3i- vai to eat something specific
nonibíí3i- vai to eat something wrongly, eat something forbidden
eclipse
hiinousee- vai (the sun or moon) to eclipse
hiinóusee- vii to be an eclipse
edible
bíí3ib ni food, something edible
biinéíhiinóó- vii to be edible, generally eaten
effort
neyéi3ííhi' adv by trying, with effort
níh'oowóóhu- vai to do something which requires a great deal of effort
egg
noon ni egg
egret
kookóósoonéíhii na 1) heron, egret, 2) also perhaps curlew, slough bird, rail or other birds with long, thin legs
wo'óúhuu na heron, egret
hité3oo na crane, especially a sandhill crane, heron, egret
eight hundred
néésootox béteetósoo' pc eight hundred
eight
néésootox num eight
néésootoxénení'i vii (pl.) to be eight in number
eighteen
néésootóxuuni' pc eighteen
eighty
néésootósoo' pc eighty
elated
ni'ouubéíhi- vai to be elated, high, intoxicated
elbow
bétison ni-dep elbow
elder
béésnenítee na elder, old person
elderberries
kokúyono ni elderberries, scientific name Sambucus coerulea, possibly Sambucus microbotrys
elephant
honookowuubeet na elephant
elevated
hóuu3íne- vai 1) to be hanging or hung in a place, 2) to be in an elevated position
Elk Mountain
Wó'teenótoyóó' placename Elk Mountain, WY
elk
hiwóxuu na elk
hóóxeehíwox na male elk, elk bull
else
kóxuunííhi' adv 1) something else, a different one, 2) somewhere else
embarass
teyéíh- vta to embarass s.o.
embrace
he'ííten- vta to embrace s.o., hug s.o.
hónowounóúhu- vai to embrace one another
hónowoo3- vta to embrace s.o.
emphatic
heh- pv emphatic
empty
niicisóó- vii to be empty, hollow
niiciseih- vii to be empty, hollow
encircle
noo'óeenííkohéí- vai to ride around s.t., encircle s.t.
enclose
nii3oxóen- vta to enclose s.o. in a fenced area
end
nee'éi'ísi- vii that is how it ends
enemy
coox na enemy
enjoy
hówoo3ítoo- vai to enjoy
enough
nee'éétox particle enough
nehínee particle that's enough!
néé'eetoxtóowóóhu- vai to do something enough, do something enough times
néé'eetoxtóowóoti- vai to do something enough, do something enough times
enter
hoo'éícii3íhcehí- vai to run in to a place as a group, to enter rapidly as a group
enter
cíi3íhcehí- vai to enter rapidly, to run in to a structure
cíítei- vai to enter, come in
cíítei'on- vta to enter into s.o.'s presence
entirely
behííhi' adv all, entirely, as a whole
entrails
3oox ni entrails, guts, intestines, bowels
envy
noxóxh- vta to envy s.o.
noxoxeihi- vai to be envious
equipment
ciiyoonó ni 1) (pl.) equipment, kit, gear, 2) belongings
erect
xoubeekúú- vai 1) to be erect, 2) stand straight, upright
xoubeekúú- vii to be erect, stand upright
error
nóntoot ni error, mistake
escape
koyíh'ohú- vai 1) to fly away, 2) to escape by flying
césiikúhnee- vai to get away, escape
establish a rule
hooxúwutíí- vai to establish rules about something
et cetera
heenéí'isííhi' adv 1) various kinds, 2) and so forth, and similarly, et cetera, 3) ones like that
Ethete
koonóutoséií' ni Ethete (placename)
even
howóó particle also, even
cectoyoo- vii 1) to be even, 2) to be level
tótoos proclitic even, even if, not even
evening
hi3óú'uunííhi' adv evening
hi3óú'oo- vii to be evening
hi3ou'uuni- vii to be evening
hi3óú'oo- vii to be evening
every
hééyow- pv 1) every, 2) each
hééyowúúhu' adv 1) every, 2) each
everyone
beisííhi' adv 1) all, entirely, completely, 2) everyone
boh- pv all, everyone
everything
kónohúúhu' adv 1) all, everything, 2) most, majority
heeyóúhuu ni 1) thing, 2) stuff, 3) something, anything
behííhi ni everything
bíseenéíhi' adv everything
evidential
wot- proclitic evidential, indicating non-verifiability, 'I guess it is so,' 'they say it is so'
evil
ciiwóhoonéíhi- vai to be evil
examine
kóóko'óúhu- vai to examine s.o.
kokóúh'utíí- vai to examine something carefully
excessively
hoowúh- pv too much, too many, excessively
exchange
hooxóebíínetí- vai to trade, exchange things
hóóxohóenííhi' adv in return, in response, in exchange
hóóxee- pv in exchange, in response, in return
hotóonóó3etí- vai 1) to exchange things among one another, 2) to support one another
hóóxoentéesísee- vai to exchange a horse
hooxóeen- vti to exchange s.t.
exclamation
'osteihoo exclamation exclamation made when something bad happens, when something is not right, "I could have done better!"
excrement
biihí3 ni manure, dung, animal excrement
bee ni excrement, feces
exhause
nóó'oenííhiineetó'osíbetí- vai to exhaust oneself by running around a place
expect
no'óeneb- vta to expect s.o.
expensive
nóótoúh'u- vii to be expensive
extend
cowóotéé- vii to be laid out, extend along a certain direction, lead in a certain way
extra
ceníí'iisíse' ni leftover, something extra
extremely
hóuunée- pv really, extremely, the most
eye
besíiíse' ni-dep eye
eyeglasses
bei'ci3ééyookuu ni eyeglasses, glasses
eyesight
nesookú- vai to see well, have good eyesight

F

face
héési'éí'oo- vai 1) to make faces, 2) to frown
wówe'éí- vai 1) to have a wrinkled face, 2) to have a face that is out of shape
nóókooto'n- vta to be facing s.o., opposite s.o.
betóóxebíó' ni-dep face
néénéiitó'- vta to face s.o.
yii3é'eekuunóón- vta to face s.o.
toowú'ei- vai to have a broad, flat face
3owe'ei- vai to have a broken face, a face that is misshapen from a fight or injury
fade
nookétee- vii to be faded
fairly
cííno'on- pv fairly, rather, intensifier
fake
ceyótow- pv false, fake
falcon
hééyei na hawk, falcon, swifthawk
fall asleep
nokohúúnoo'oo- vai to fall asleep
fall on
teesíko'ós- vai to fall on top of something and hit it
fall
céénkoo' ni 1) fall, autumn, 2) October
tóóyouni- vii to be fall, autumn
censénee' vii it has fallen down, dropped down
censénini- vii it has fallen down, dropped down
censíne- vai 1) to fall down, 2) to be born
ceníse' vii it has fallen down, fallen out
cenís- vai to fall
ce'síne- vai to fall back down
false
ceyótow- pv false, fake
ceyótobee- vii to be false
familiar
néhtiihí- vii to be known, recognized, familiar
famine
hésnóót ni 1) hunger, 2) famine
hesnóótiini' vii there is hunger, there is famine
heesnootííni' ni famine
fancy
hoosóó- vii to be fancy
hoosóó- vii to be fancy
far away
beebei'ón particle far away, way over there
ciixóotéé- vii 1) to be far away, 2) to be long ago, from long ago
ciisííhi' adv far away
nó'oo' particle far away from the camp circle
ciixóku- vai to be far away
ciixootéé- vii to be far away
far
ciis- pv 1) far in distance, 2) long in time
beexéhceníín- pv a little farther away from the speaker
héí'ii'ííhi' adv as far as, up to a particular point
ciinó'onícisííhi' adv fairly far
céniisííni particle far
cíisíniihííhi' adv far along (e.g. a path, stream)
ciiskóx3ííhi' adv far on the other side of a hill or mountain, far over the top of a hill or mountain
ciixó'obéé- vii places are far apart, it is far from place to place
céniixóotéé- vii to be far
farm
ciinóuu- vai to farm
farmer
ciinóúhuu na farmer
fart
cééti- vai to fart, break wind, pass gas
farther
wo'wúúhu' adv farther along
fast
betéésibí- vai to go on a vision quest and fast
nih'inéésee- vai to walk fast
nokóóyeiníiitowóót- vti to ask for s.t. through the process of fasting
hésiinootéíhi- vai 1) to be fast, have fast reflexes, 2) to be reckless
nokóóyei- vai 1) to fast ritually, 2) to be thirsty
neehéíso'óó- vai to be equally fast
héso'óó- vai to be fast (especially in running)
fasten
noto'óh- vti to fasten s.t.
fasting
nokooyóót ni fasting
fat
woxniinen ni bear fat
níinén ni fat, lard, tallow
kooxceiít na a fat person or animal
kooxcééyoti' ni fat
kooxcéií- vai to be fat
koxceií- vai to be fat
father in law
nesí3ee na-dep my father in law
father
neisónoo na-dep my father, my uncle
favor
hííxonih- vta 1) to be useful to s.o., 2) to do s.o. a favor
ho3í'eeb- vta to ask s.o. a favor, ask s.o. to do something
ho3í'eebee- vai to be asked a favor, be asked to do something
niiyeih- vta to do s.o. a favor
fear
híis- vta to be afraid of s.o., fear s.o.
tiit- vti to be afraid of s.t., fear s.t.
feather
hiisíítookoxúúnee vai to earn a feather, as a symbol of a brave deed
bíií na feather, plume
nííxookúúnee- vai to be wearing one feather, have one feather on one's head
níítootoxúúnee- vai to be wearing six feathers, have six feathers on one's head
níísookúúnee- vai to be wearing two feathers, have two feathers on one's head
hítookooxúúnee- vai to earn a feather (through a brave deed)
nóóko3óni' ni white tail feather of an eagle
February
heneene3ebeihit na February
feces
bee ni excrement, feces
fed up
cíísibih-- vta to make someone frustrated or fed up
feeble
hetebínouhúúni- vai 1) to be pitiful, 2) to be feeble, 3) to be poor
hoowtei'éíhi- vai-NEG to be feeble
feed
hoxób- vta to feed s.o.
bíí3ihiin- vta to give s.o. food, provide s.o. with food, feed s.o.
feel bad
woxóuubéíhi- vai to feel bad
feel right
ni'óxon- vta to make s.o. feel right, cause s.o. to feel right
feel
notii3ín- vta to grope around for s.o., to feel around for s.o.
notii3ín- vti to grope around for s.t., to feel around for s.t.
biisíh- vta to feel s.o.
biistii- vti to feel s.t.
biisí3- vti to feel s.t.
female
hóxehísei na female animale
fence
coowooceiise' ni 1) wire, 2) fence made from wire
cóoó' ni 1) corral, fence, 2) trap for game animals such as elk
3í'ookuu3óó ni fence post
nii3oxoeyéí- vai to build a fence, repair a fence
nii3oxoeyóó ni 1) fence, 2) corrall
nookoxóeén- vti to fence off an area with willows
ferret
coo3oniiseihon na black-footed ferret
fetch water
nookohéí'i- vai to fetch water, get water
fetch
no3- vta to fetch s.o., seize or grab s.o.
fever
hesxóúh'u- vai to have a fever, to be feverish, to be hot
hesxúhu'í- vai to have a fever
few
beenihéhe' particle a little bit, few
field sagewort
ciwoniinóókhoosé' field sagewort, wormwood, scientific name Artemisia campestris
field
hee3éí'oxóeení' ni field
fifteen
yoo3óniiní- vai fifteen (an.)
yoo3óniini' vii fifteen (inan.)
fifth
yóó3oní'owoo- vai 1) to do something five times, 2) to be the fifth one
yoo3oyó'owoo- vii to be fifth
yoo3oyó'owoo- vai to be fifth
fifty
yóó3oyoo' vii fifty
fight
bóó3etíít ni fighting, war, battle
bóó3etí- vii there is a fight, there is a battle
bóó3etí- vai to fight with one another, do battle
bóó'ei- vai to fight
figure out
téceenéét- vti to guess s.t., try to figure s.t. out, calculate s.t. in one's mind
filing cabinet
3éíyoó ni container, cupboard, filing cabinet
fill
notóóbe'éítii- vai to fill a hole
hiixóóko- vta to fill a pipe
hííxoxónoh- vta to fill s.o.
hííxoxónotíí- vti to fill s.t.
film
ce'ískuu3óó ni 1) film, movie, 2) equipment that displays a film or movie such as a projector or television
filthy
wotóxoobéíhi- vai 1) to be dirty, filthy, 2) to be unkempt
nóótoxéíhi- vai to be filthy
wotóxoobee- vii to be filthy
wóówoséí- vai to use filthy language, to talk dirty
finally
hohkónee particle finally
finch
hiitesiteebi na house finch
find
bii'íítii- vai to find something, discover something
híico'óóton- vta to find s.o., discover s.o. in hiding
bíí'iih- vta to find s.o.
bíí'iin- vta to find s.o.
bii'ín- vti to find s.t.
fine
hih'óó particle okay, all right, fine
ni'iiní- vii that's fine, it's ok, it's good
finger
3ííhoho ni forefinger
ne3éé3oo ni-dep finger (1 poss.)
hecés3ee3oo ni little finger, pinky
finish
híístii- vai to be done, be finished doing something
nóhohoobée3too- vai to hurry up and finish doing something
bee3- pv completative, finish
béetó'oo- vii 1) to be finished, over, done with, 2) to pass away, 3) to run out, disappear
béé3tii- vai to complete something, finish something
bée3too- vai to finish doing something
finished
bee3ííhi' adv 1) finished, 2) gone
bee3iiníse- vii to be finished, over
fir
nii'ibóoóti' ni spruce or fir tree, scientific names Abies bifolia, Picea engelmannii, Pseudostuga menziesii
hibóoótí' ni Rocky Mountin fir tree, scientific name Abies bifolia, possibly other Abies spp.
fire carrier
wotitoneihii ni fire carrier , fire starter
fire chief
hisíteenéécee na fire chief
fire
cóboo- vai to shoot, fire a shot
coocóboo- vai to shoot repeatedly, fire repeated shots
wótitonéé- vai to start a fire
cé3e3ééyei- vai to start a fire, get a fire started
hesítee ni 1) fire, 2) furnace, heater, stove
kohóóxoe' vii there is a fire
coone3ééyei- vai to be unable to get a fire going
wotikuu3- vta to put s.o. into a fire
firefly
noh'óeseihíhi' na firefly
firewood
béxo ni (pl.) firewood
first
niitówo'oo- vai to be first, be in the lead
níítobéeé- vai to be first in line, go first, lead
nííto' particle first
níítobe'einííhi' adv first
neniitówun pc first of all
níítowo'éinííhi' adv the first way, the first type
níítowootéé- vii to be first
níitobeekúú- vai to stand ahead, be first
fish
nówo' na fish
neb na fish
nóyei- vai to fish
fisher(man)
noyéíhii na fisher(man)
fishhook
noyóót na 1) rainbow, 2) fishhook, fishing gear, 3) ?trap
fist
co'ohóe- vai to make a fist
fit
teekó'- vti 1) to fit s.t. (e.g. clothes), 2) to be ready or suited for s.t. (e.g. a power)
téi'einóehi- vai to be strong, physically fit
ní'einóehi- vai to be fit
five
yóó3oní'owoo- vai 1) to do something five times, 2) to be the fifth one
yoo3ón num five
yóó3oní- vai to be five in number
fix up
bebíi3en- vta to fix up or repair s.o.
bebíi3en- vti to fix up or repair s.t.
fix
hoxoyóót- vti 1) to stitch s.t., sew s.t., 2) to mend s.t., 3) to fix s.t.
bebíistíí- vai 1) to fix something, repair something, 2) to do something correctly
flag
niiwohóe ni flag
flame up
kohké3ee- vii to be flaming up
flame
co'ouuté3ee- vii to be flaming high
flap
nih'oowkúútii- vai to twitch, move or flap (e.g. one's ears)
Flat Pipe
se'eicooo ni Flat Pipe
flat
seenéíhi- vai 1) to be soft, 2) (a tire) to be flat
se'eihtee- vai 1) to have flat feet, 2) to have webbed feet
se'éé- vii to be flat
se'éíhi- vai to be flat
só'ootéé- vii to be flat, arranged in a flat way, lie flat
hí3o'obéé- vii to be flat ground
Flathead
kookéé'eit na Flathead
flatiron
bé3e'xóh'oe ni flatiron, iron
flea
betéi na flea
flee
nonííkuhnee- vai to flee and hide, be chased away into hiding
tókohú- vai to flee, to run away
nóótesei'i- vai to flee in fright, to run away in fright
fleece
hicíínee ni fleece, wool, cotton
flesh
3ebéx ni flesh, meat scraped from a hide
flicker
beetéibétee na flicker
flint
wóosóó3 ni arrowhead, flint
float
hoowúnii'ou'oo- vai float downriver
cówou'oo- vii to float, sail
ce3í3ou'óó- vai 1) to float away, 2) to begin to float
no'ou'oo- vai to arrive by floating, float to a place
nínou'oo- vii to float
cówou'oo- vai to float
céitou'óó- vai to float towards the speaker
flood
noo'únoo'oo' ni flood
flour
3o'ohóeeno ni 1) flour, 2) wheat
flow
cebínoo'oo- vii (water) to flow by, run by, pass by
ko'usé' vii 1) it lies a certain way, 2) it flows a certain way
cówoowo'óó- vii to flow (as in water)
cesínoo'óó' vii (water) has begun flowing
hoowúno'oo' vii (water) is flowing downstream
xouuwúno'oo- (water) to flow straight
flower
cee'esé'einóó' ni flower
be'éíyoo' ni little white flat-top flower
flute
níitóuu3óó ni 1) whistle, 2) flute, 3) bugle
fly away
koyíh'ohú- vai 1) to fly away, 2) to escape by flying
wotíh'ohu- vai to fly away
koyíh'ohukóóhu- vai to fly away and escape rapidly
nohkcésisíh'ohu- vai to fly away with something, fly away while holding something
nohkúhcíh'ohú- vai to fly up and away with something
fly brush
kouteso'owoot ni fly brush (made from the tail of a buffalo)
noonoeseihoo ni fly brush (made from the tail of a buffalo)
fly in circles
nóononóó'ootii- vai to fly in circles around a thing or place, to soar in circles around a thing or place
nóononóó'ooton- vta to fly in circles around s.o., to soar in circles around s.o.
nóononóó'oo- vai to fly in circles, to soar in circles (e.g. a bird)
nóonono'oeníh'ohúút- vti to fly or soar in a circular direction around some thing or place
nóononoo'íh'ohúút- vti to fly or soar in circles about s.t.
fly
nééyeiníh'ohu- vai to fly close by, to approach by flying
cesisíh'ohú- vai to fly away
césisíh'ohu- vai 1) to begin to fly, 2) to begin to fly away
nóúbee na fly
hiiníh'ohu- vai to fly around, fly about
cebíh'ohu- vai to fly by
hoowúh'ohú- vai to fly down
hoowúh'ohúukóóhu- vai to fly down quickly
hesíineeníh'ohú- vai to fly rapidly
hihcíh'ohú- vai to fly up
foam
ciitéé ni foam
fog
be'énoo ni 1) fog, 2) turtle
be'enóuni- vii to be foggy
fold
niisíítoon- vti 1) to fold s.t., 2) to roll a cigarette
niisíítooyei- vai 1) to fold something, 2) to roll a cigarette
follow along
niihó'- vti to stay close by something, to follow along something (e.g. a river, when traveling)
niihó'ob- vta to stay close to s.o., to follow along with s.o.
níího'ohon- vta to follow alongside s.o.
follow
to3íh- vta to follow s.o., stay close to s.o.
3óókuh- vta 1) to follow s.o., 2) track s.o., trail s.o.
3ookútii- vai to follow, most often figuratively
to3itii- vai to follow something (e.g. a course, a road, a river)
3ookúsee- vai to follow, walk behind
follower
3ookú3eihii na follower
food
bíí3ib ni food, something edible
bíí3hiit ni food, things to eat, what one eats
fool
hoohóókee na fool, foolish person
foolish
hohéis na 1) crazy person, foolish person, 2) senile person
hoheisííni- vai 1) to be foolish, be crazy, 2) to be senile
hohóókee na crazy person, foolish person
hohookééni- vai to be or act foolish, crazy, to disobey social norms and mores
foot
beeseihtee- vai to have big feet
wó'oo3 ni-dep foot, leg
force
nihi'nééton- vta 1) to demand s.t. of s.o., 2) to force s.o. to do something, insist that s.o. do something
nihi'in- vta to insist that s.o. do something, force s.o. to do something
too'enowuun- vta to force s.o. to stop doing something
forefinger
3ííhoho ni forefinger
forehead
có'oú'oo ni forehead
foreign
henees- pv strange, foreign, other
kóxuunenítee na person from a different or foreign place, non-Arapaho
forest
neeyéíci' ni forest, woods
forever
3ebetocó'onííhi' adv forever
3ebcii3ó'bee3ííhi' adv forever
forget
neníh- pv 1) leave something alone, let something be, 2) forget about something
noníh'i- vai to forget
nonih'íí3iton- vta to forget s.o.
nonih'ii3ít- vti to forget s.t.
fork
néésouni- vii to be forked into three prongs
níísouni- vii to be forked into two prongs or branches (e.g. a tree)
Fort Washakie
cee'eyeino'óowú' ni Fort Washakie, WY
forthright
xouuwéí'towuun- vta tell s.o. in a straight, direct manner, be forthright with someone
forty
yeiyóó' num forty
foul
wooxéti' na person who is foulmouthed
Found-In-Grass
Bii'oxúyoo na Found-In-Grass (title of a traditional tale and the name of the main character in it)
fountain
hooxéb ni 1) spring (source of water), 2) fountain, 3) well
four
yein num four (counting form)
yéiní- vai to be four in number
yéíntoowóót- vti to do something four times
yéíntoowó'ohéíhi- vai to have something done to one four times
yéiníiisi' vii something has been done for four days
four-pronged
yeneiyóúni' ni four-pronged pitchfork
fourteen
yeiniiní' num fourteen
fourth
yeiní'owoo- vai to be fourth
yeiní'owoo- vii to be fourth
yéinoh'óóke- vii to be the fourth morning
fox
bééxoúú na red fox
nouu na swift fox
fray
cee'éé- vii to be frayed, torn
cee'óóceihi- vai to be frayed
free
koyikuutii- vai to pull something out of someplace, free something
freeze
ní'o3ínoo'óó- vii to be freezing
ni'óte- vii to be frozen
ni'o3ísetíí- vti to freeze s.t.
néeto3í- vai to freeze to death, to die from cold
freezing
ní'o3ínoo'óó- vii to be freezing
frequently
toco'onííhi' adv frequently, often
toco'on- pv frequently, often
fresh
wooyoo- vii 1) to be new, 2) to be fresh
Friday
neh'einíísi' ni Friday
yein nonóóke' ni Friday
friend
notó'u na-dep 1) (my) sister in law, 2) (my) female friend
béíteh'éí na-dep friend, partner
be na friend! (vocative)
hinííteh'éíhebetí- vai to be friends with one another, treat each other as friends
friendly
teteesih- vta to treat s.o. in a friendly manner, treat s.o. politely
tetééso'óó- vai to act in a friendly manner
tetéesó'ooton- vta to do something in a friendly manner for s.o.
frighten
neih- vta to scare s.o., frighten s.o.
fringe
heyooxú- vii to be fringed
cehnoocéí'oo- vii to be fringed
frog
nooxóbe' na frog
ceneeteenooxobe' na green frog (perhaps a bullfrog or a northern leopard frog)
from
néé'eetéíhi- vai that is where someone is from
néé'ee3óó' vii that is where something is from, that is how something came about
seh- pv from here to there (used for seeing, not motion)
hii3ííhi' adv from there, from that thing or place
híí3iini vii where it is from
frown
3oxóni'éí'oo- vai 1) to look angry, 2) to frown
héési'éí'oo- vai 1) to make faces, 2) to frown
teenéí'oo- vai 1) to look sad, 2) to frown
frozen
ni'óte- vii to be frozen
bee3ó'ote- vii to be frozen stiff
fruit
bííbinoot ni 1) berry, 2) extended to other small roundish fruit such as grape or raisin
biinéhe' ni fruit, small fruit such as a cherry, scientific name Cerasus pensylvanica
frustrate
cíísibih-- vta to make someone frustrated or fed up
frustrated
heneebínoo'óó- vai 1) to be frustrated, 2) to be restless
fry bread
cebiteenoc ni fry bread
fry
co'céí- vai to fry bread
hócoo3- vti to fry s.t., cook s.t. in a pan (usually meat)
hocóót- vti to fry s.t.
hócei- vai to fry something
fulfill
ni'óótowóotéé' vii (a prayer or wish) has been fulfilled
ni'óótowoo- vai to have one's prayer or wish fulfilled
full grown
hiisii'óó- vii (something inanimate, e.g. a plant) to be full grown
hiisii'óó- vai to be full grown, to be grown up
full
hiixoxónee- vii to be full
funny
nonoxóó3ei- vai to be funny
fur
bíísbiixúút ni fur coat
có'onéé- vai 1) to have fur, be furry, 2) to be shaggy
furry
có'onéé- vai 1) to have fur, be furry, 2) to be shaggy
fussy
koo'ówootéíhi- vai to be fussy
future
héét- pv future tense

G

gag
xo'ú3kuu3- vta to gag s.o., to cause s.o. to retch
xó'owkúu3- vta to gag s.o., put something in s.o.'s mouth
gall
hiníínic ni gall
gallop
níhi'kóóhu- vai 1) to run quickly, 2) (a horse) to gallop
noho'úkotii- vai 1) to gallop, 2) to run
gamble
cebííhetí- vai to play games or gamble with one another
cebiihínee- vai to gamble
game
cese'eihíí na game, wild quadruped mammal, wild animals hunted for food
cebííhetí- vai to play games or gamble with one another
gardner's yampah
yeneinít na carrot, indian carrot, gardner's yampah, scientific name Perideridia gairdneri
gargle
hehíisetnóúhu- vai to gargle
gartersnake
hineice' na gartersnake
gas money
ciinóhoé ni gas money
gasoline
cebítee ni any oil including cooking oil, shortening, grease, gasoline, kerosene, petrolium
gate
tecénoo na, ni door, gate
gather wood
nó'otoséee- vai to gather a lot of wood
gather
hóo'éíhi- vai to collect, gather something
hoo'eiséé- vai to gather, come together, have a meeting
beséee- vai to gather wood
nó'oonó3ei- vai to gather one's things
hoo'éíxotii- vai to gather something
gear
ciiyoonó ni 1) (pl.) equipment, kit, gear, 2) belongings
gee whiz
wo'uucéh exclamation gee whiz!, I can't believe it!, for no reason at all!
gee
'ííheihóó, exclamation exclamation of surprise, gee!, wow!
yehéíhoo exclamation exclamation of surprise, "gee!," "wow!," "isn't that something!"
gelding
neecéés na gelding, castrated horse
general
tenééteexóó3eit na general, high ranking military officer
generally
héénoo particle 1) regularly, generally, as a rule, 2) purposefully, on purpose
generation
wonoonii'óót na young person, member of a younger generation
neehiicxóóyeihí- vai to be of the same generation, be the same age
generous
héíhoowciikó'ootí- vai to be generous
kó'ootéíhi- vai to be generous
gentle
hisííne'étii- vai 1) to be gentle, kind, meek, tender, 2) (an animal) to be tame, 3) to be nice, friendly
geranium
ceyótowóhoono' ni geranium, scientific name Geranium spp.
get away
césiikúhnee- vai to get away, escape
césiikoh- vta to get away from s.o.
get back
neyéíxohowóó- vai to try to get/bring things back for oneself
get down
hoowúsee- vai to go down, go downhill, get down
hoowúsee- vai 1) to get down (e.g. off a horse), 2) go down (e.g. downhill)
get even
co'ooxéénoo- vai to get even with s.o.
get in the way
towó'on- vta to interrupt s.o., get in s.o.'s way
get in
teesísee- vai 1) to get on something, get on top of something , 2) to mount a horse, 3) to get in something (e.g. a car)
get on
teesíhcehí- vai to get on to something rapidly, jump on top of something
get out of the way
ceibísee- vai to move to the side, move over, get out of the way
nookootísee- vai get out of the way
get ready
néenóú'uh- vta to prepare s.o., get s.o. ready
néenóú'u- vai to get ready for something, prepare for something
get underneath
hininéí'3eeyenei'éíhi- vai to get down underneath something, get below something
get up
3owo3íí- vai to rise, get up (from a lying position)
koheí'i- vai get up or stand up (from a sitting or lying position), arise
get water
nookohéí'i- vai to fetch water, get water
get
hiisíiténowoo- vai to grab, get, or seize something for oneself
ghost
bíitéí na ghost, spirit
gift
nééceenóhoó ni gift
tóu3é'eikuutii- vai to give a gift ceremonially
tóu3é'ein- vta to give s.o. a gift ceremonially
tóu3é'eikuu3- vta to give s.o. a gift ceremonially
nééceenóhoo3- vta to give s.o. a gift in a traditional ceremony
gilia
neníísi3é'einoo' ni gilia, a dicot perennial herb, scientific name Ipomopsis congesta
girl
hiseihiitéí'yoo na young girl, maiden
hiseihíhi' na girl
girlfriend
nebii'ó'oo na-dep my sweetheart, my girlfriend, my boyfriend
girth
hóóxuuku ni bellyband, saddle girth
hóóxuucihíít ni 1) girth, a band that holds a saddle on a horse, 2) cinch
give s.o. food
niiwóókoxon- vta to give s.o. food to carry with them on a trip
give
cee'ihénihéíhiinóó- vii to be given away, granted (caused to be given out)
cé'enéíhi- vai to be given back to someone
cé3en- vti to give s.t. away, pass s.t on to others
biin- vti to give s.t. (to someone)
biin- vta to give something to s.o.
céé'ih- vta to permanently give s.o. something valuable and useful, as in a knowledge or skill
give-away
nééceenóhoót ni a public give-away
glad
ni'í3ecóó- vai to be glad, happy
glance
noohowkuu3- vta to glance at s.o., to catch sight of s.o.
glans
bó'os ni glans, head of the penis
glass
ceeníhcoo' ni a transparent container such as a bottle, jar, or glass
glasses
bei'ci3ééyookuu ni eyeglasses, glasses
glide
nóónonóó'oo- vai to glide
glimpse
hitétookú'oo- vai to manage to see something, get a glimse of something
glitter
nóho'kóso'oo- vii to glitter
glove
3ooxé na glove, mitten
glow
ceesei'óó- vii to glow, e.g. embers
glue
kohyóhoé ni glue, paste
gnat
cihí'nóúbee na gnat ('small fly')
gnaw
wotéínoxónee- vai to gnaw, make a gnawing noise
go along
nííhoobéí- vai to go along with others on a trip or journey
go around
noo'oekúú3- vta to make s.o. go around
go away
3ebísee- vai to walk over there, walk away
wootóó particle step aside, go away
nohkcé3ei'oo- vai to go away and take something with one
go back
ce'3einoo'oo- vai to go back inside a container
go below
hinowúse' vii it has gone below the surface, out of sight
go down
hoowúsee- vai to go down, go downhill, get down
go home
nohkeeckóóhu- vai to go home with something
go on
nééco'oo- vta to go on, to go on one's way
go out
biskóóhu- vai 1) to appear suddenly, appear running, 2) to go out (searching)
go outside
3ebíisnóehi- vai to go outside in that direction
go up
noxúutéísee- vai go upwards, go upslope
noxúutéíkoohu- vai run up, go up quickly
go with
nii3óón- vta to go with s.o., to accompany s.o.
go
cebikóóhuuhéí- vai to pass by, when on horseback
cebikóóhu- vai to pass by, travelling in a vehicle
won- pv allative, going to do something
cowoo'úsee- vai to pass by when in a wheeled vehicle such as a wagon or wheelchair
3ebísee- vai to walk over there, walk away
neecísee- vai to go on along, move along, proceed
noehí- vai to come or go out, come or go outside
cebísee- vai to pass by, go by, walk by
yihóó- vai to go to a place, walk to a place
behiikóóhu- vai to all go someplace
heihoo- vai to go
hoowúniihísee- vai to go down along (a stream)
síí'iihéísee- vai to go into water or onto ice
tootísee- vai to go near a place
yíhoon- vta to go to s.o.
yíhoon- vta to go to s.o., go to where a person is
sóóxee exclamation let's go!
goat
beniixóxko'ó' na (mountain) goat
hoho'éniibiixoxko'o' na mountain goat
biixoxko'neenote' na mountain goat
gobble up
hotóob- vta to consume s.o., gobble s.o. up
gobble
hotóóbe- vai to consume something, eat something up, gobble something up
God
hóuu na 1) crow, 2) raven, 3) God, Man-Above
gold
be'ebei'icí3e' ni gold
golden eagle
heebé3ii'éíhii na 1) big eagle, big bird, 2) golden eagle
hiinookó3onit na golden eagle
goldfish
nihoonbei'ci3einowo' na goldfish
gone
bee3ííhi' adv 1) finished, 2) gone
woti'- pv gone, removed, gotten rid of
good boy
ní'oohonóh'oehííni- vai to be a good boy
good looking
noxoséíhi- vai 1) to be good looking, attractive, 2) to be sweet
good
ni'iiní- vii that's fine, it's ok, it's good
hi3éíhi- vai 1) to be good, 2) to be good looking, pretty
hi3eti- vii 1) to be good, 2) to be right
ni'- pv good, well
ni'ííni vii it is good
hééyeih- pv it is good that something happened
good-looking
hi3ówoonéíhi- vai to be good-looking, attractive, pretty
goose
nooksíísiic na 1) swan , 2) snow goose
né'iisóó na gosling, young goose
ne' na goose
nénebííhi' né'iii na goose, Canada goose
gooseberry
hiwóxuuyéino' ni gooseberries, prickly currants, scientific name Ribes lacustre
toxu'úúwuno' ni (pl.) gooseberries, scientific name Ribes inerme, possibly other Ribes spp.
gopher hole
nouuciitoo3oo ni gopher hole
gopher snake
hóóxeesíísiiyei na bullsnake, gopher snake
kookousiisiiyei na bullsnake, gopher snake
gopher
nouuciitóó3eihii na gopher, possibly also mole
goshawk
cecnóhuu na applied to several types of hawk such as goshawk, winter hawk, rough-legged hawk, harrier
gosling
né'iisóó na gosling, young goose
gossip
bee3íbetiit ni gossip
bee3i'éébi- vai to gossip
gourd
síísiiy na 1) gourd, 2) rattle (traditionally made of a gourd)
government
niinooxúwut 1) government, 2) person in a position of government leadership such as a governor or president
governor
niinooxúwut 1) government, 2) person in a position of government leadership such as a governor or president
grab
híten- vta 1) to take s.o., 2) to grab s.o.
hitén- vti 1) to take s.t., 2) to grab s.t.
no3- vta to fetch s.o., seize or grab s.o.
hiisíiténowoo- vai to grab, get, or seize something for oneself
hi3kuu3- vta 1) to grab s.o., seize s.o., capture s.o., 2) to rape s.o.
hi3kúútii- vai to grab something, seize something
grain
ciinóuutono ni (pl.) applied to various crops that are planted such as grain (including wheat, rye) or vegetables
grandchild
neisíe na-dep (my) grandchild, grandson, granddaughter
grandfather
nebésiibéhe' na-dep 1) my grandfather, 2) my ceremonial sponsor
grandmother
nei'béhe' na-dep (my) grandmother
grant
cee'ihénihéíhiinóó- vii to be given away, granted (caused to be given out)
grape
tóótoocíbino' ni (pl.) grapes, scientific name Vitis spp.
niibeneibihí'i ni (pl.) grapes, scientific name Vitis spp.
grasp
hee3íten- vta to grasp s.o., hold s.o.
hee3itén- vti to grasp s.t.
grass
woxú' ni 1) grass, scientific name Poaceae spp., 2) hay
ceeneetéénesoo' ni green grass
hiiyóótesoo- vii to be fine grass (without any weeds)
grasshopper
nih'oocéíhii na locust, grasshopper
grave
héétse'ísi' ni grave
héétoyeinousí' ni grave
nih'iitcííneneet ni grave
gravy
bé'eené'eek ni squawberry gravy
bé'eek ni gravy, blood gravy
3ohooné'eek ni meat gravy with flour
gray
niice'éé- vii to be gray
grease
cebítee ni any oil including cooking oil, shortening, grease, gasoline, kerosene, petrolium
greasewood
síísííyeibíís ni greasewood, scientific name Sarcobatus vermiculatus
greasy
te'éé- vii to be greasy
Great Lakes person
béesóowúunén na one of the five 'subtribes' identified by Kroeber, member of the branch of the greater Arapaho-Gros Ventre tribe which went by this name, variously translated as 'Great Lakes person,' or 'big lodge person'
Great Salt Lake
niicóo'ówu' placename Great Salt Lake
greatly
nóxowúúhu' adv 1) intensely, greatly, 2) near, close, almost
green
cenééteeyóó- vii to be blue or green
greyhound
3ouyi'éíhii na greyhound
grief
ciini'í3ecóót ni grief
grieve
ciini'í3ecoo- vai to grieve
hotówou3ecóó- vai to grieve
grind
3o'én- vti to crush s.t., grind s.t., mash s.t.
3ó'owú'uwonee- vai to grind or crush berries
grizzly bear
heebétox na 1) big bear, 2) grizzly bear
nonóókunéseet na grizzly bear
grope
notii3ín- vta to grope around for s.o., to feel around for s.o.
grope
notii3ín- vti to grope around for s.t., to feel around for s.t.
Gros Ventre
hitóúúnen na Gros Ventre, member of the Gros Ventre tribe, one of the five 'subtribes' identified by Kroeber
hitóúúteen ni Gros Ventre tribe
ground
bííto'ówu' ni 1) earth, ground, land, 2) sometimes extended to mean 'floor'
nii3o'iní' ni ground meat, hamburger meat
bee3ó'o'béé' ni hard ground
group
wóóhonéíhi- vai to be united, be a group, be together
grouse
cénee na grouse, sage grouse
hóh'eniicénee na blue grouse ('mountain grouse')
nonookúsono' na male grouse
niiniibeicenee na ruffled grouse
grow up
nih'ih'oo- vai to grow up
nóhkuusí'i'oo- vai to grow up with something (e.g. a language)
nohkubééxookee- vai to grow up with something, grow up while possessing something
grow
hiisiií'oo- vai 1) (an animal or plant) to be mature, fully grown , 2) (an animal or plant) to grow up
hiisii'óó- vii (something inanimate, e.g. a plant) to be full grown
hiisii'óó- vai to be full grown, to be grown up
hiisí'i'óót- vti to grow into a role, grow into a position
growl
3oxoohówu- vai to growl, roar, make a roaring noise
grown
bééseséí- vai to be a grown woman
bééxookeenén na 1) grown man, 2) important man
guard
hoonoyoohóót- vti 1) to watch s.t., 2) to guard s.t.
hóónoyoohóo3éí'i- vai to watch out for things, be on guard
néí'oonoyóóhob- vta to watch over s.o. closely, guard s.o. closely
hoonoyóóhob- vta to watch s.o., guard s.o.
hóónoyoohóo3éíhii na guard
hoonoyóóh- vta to guard s.o.
guess
nihíí- vai 1) to say, 2) to guess (as in a handgame)
téceenéét- vti to guess s.t., try to figure s.t. out, calculate s.t. in one's mind
niiteceenéét- vti to guess s.t.
guest
ceitéíhii na guest, visitor
guide
he'nééxoh- vta to guide s.o., lead s.o.
he'neexó3eihii na guide, usher
gull
heetécii'éíhii na gull, seagull
gully
koho'ówu' ni 1) gully, ditch, ravine, gulch, 2) small stream
gully
koho'wúúni' vii there is a gully, ditch or small stream there
kóh'owúúni' vii there is a gully, ditch, small stream there
gum
cei na 1) gum, pitch, resin, 2) sap
gun
kokíy ni 1) tube, 2) whistle (traditional type), 3) gun, rifle
guts
3oox ni entrails, guts, intestines, bowels

H

habit
heenéistóót ni ways, customs, habits, lifestyle
hack
tébe3éíh- vti to hack s.t. off
hackberry
notóyeiciibíís ni netleaf hackberry, scientific name Celtis reticulata
hail
wo'wú3oonoosóó- vii to hail (weather condition)
hailstone
wo'wú3oo na hailstone
hair
wo'teenóte'éí- vai to have black hair
bebee'éí- vai to have curly hair
hení'ei- vai to have long hair
biisíyoo ni pubic hair of a man
bíísohoo ni pubic hair (woman's)
nooké'ei'óó- vai to have hair that is turning white
nooké'ei- vai to have white hair
nookóe'éí- vai to have white hair
béí3e'ee ni-dep hair on one's head
biisí'o ni nose hair
nó'o3iiníí3e'éé- vai to have a lot of hair
3iiyoonee- vai to have thin hair, short hair (e.g. a short-haired dog or horse)
coh'óúkutoo- vai to tie one's hair in the back of the head
haircut
3iiyouhu- vai to get a haircut
hairgrass
yéyeinoxúús ni hairgrass, may also be called 'otterweed', scientific name Eleocharis spp.
hairy
biisícei- vai to have a hairy chest
biisóónee- vai to have hairy legs
biiséíhi- vai to be hairy, furry
half
koho'- pv half
halter
cecéhne'eicíh ni halter
hamburger meat
nii3o'iní' ni ground meat, hamburger meat
hamburger
nii3o3ousé' ni sandwich, hamburger
hammer
notóóh- vti to hammer s.t., nail s.t.
to'úut ni hammer
hootooh- vti to hammer s.t.
hand out food
cee'nóúhnee- vai to hand out food at a feast
hand rake
wonóhnookúteenóó' ni hand rake
hand
beecét ni-dep 1) hand, arm, 2) a constellation of five stars
bees3ee3ei- vai to have big hands
hóuute- vai to hang, be hung
hitóhoen- vta to take s.o.'s hand
handgame
koxouhtíít ni handgame
handkerchief
nii'ííwoo ni handkerchief
handsome
ni'éíhi- vai 1) to be nice, 2) to be handsome, good looking
hang meat to dry
hóuutéyoonéé- vai to hang meat out to dry
houtéyoonee- vai to hang up meat to dry
hang open
té'etínoo'oo- vai to have one's mouth hanging open
hang
hóuu3íne- vai 1) to be hanging or hung in a place, 2) to be in an elevated position
xoonoo'óh- vta to hang s.o.
hou'utíí- vai to hang something up
hanging
houte- vii to be hanging
happen
cebíseenoo- vii to proceed, happen, go on
happy
hónobéíhi- vai to be cheerful, happy, merry
ni'í3ecóó- vai to be glad, happy
hónowú3ecoo- vai to be happy, be in a joyous mood
hoonobéé' ni a happy situation, circumstance
honobee- vai to be happy
harass
nosóúnoxuuh- vta to keep bothering, harassing or persecuting someone
coo'u3éí'i- vai to bother people, harass people
nó'cou'u3éí'i- vai to come to bother or harass people
hard
hónouuneenóó- vii to be difficult
bé3e'éé- vii to be hard, stiff, tough
be3e'eihi- vai to be hard
be3e'- pv hard
hardwood
be3e'íbes ni hardwood
bee3e'íxóó' ni hardwood
hare
nóóku na 1) cottontail rabbit, or used for rabbits generally, 2) hare
harebell
cee'einóóni' ni sleigh bell (flowers), harebell, scientific name Campanula rotundifolia
harm
hésiinííh- vta to injure s.o., do s.o. harm, hurt s.o.
kóhtowúh- vta to do s.o. harm, do something mischievous or harmful to s.o.
wóxuh- vta to harm s.o.
harmed
kóhtobee- vai 1) to be harmed, hurt or injured, 2) to have something wrong
harmful
kóhtowee- vai to do something mischievous or harmful
harness
cíítoo'oyóó ni harness
harrier
hééyei be'éíh na female Northern Harrier hawk
hééyei nookéíh na male Harrier hawk
harrow
cíh'o'wúúci3oó ni harrow
cíh'o'wuucí3ei- vai to harrow, break up plowed ground
hat
woté' ni 1) hat, 2) women's warbonnet
cíítotó'onii vai put your hat on!
hate
héseinéét- vti 1) to hate s.t., 2) to resent s.t.
héseineb- vta to hate s.o., resent s.o.
have children
hiníiihóóni- vai to have children
have
nii3ín- vta to keep s.o., possess s.o., hold s.o.
nii3ín- vti to keep s.t., possess s.t.
hawk
ciicííhii na sparrow hawk, kestrel
cecnóhuu na applied to several types of hawk such as goshawk, winter hawk, rough-legged hawk, harrier
hééyei hóókecii na chicken hawk
neséínoox na chicken hawk, scientific name Accipiter spp.
hééyei be'éíh na female Northern Harrier hawk
hééyei nookéíh na male Harrier hawk
níhoono3oyéíhii na red-tailed hawk
hééyei na hawk, falcon, swifthawk
hééyei bíítei na 1) Swainson's hawk, 2) swallow, especially a cliff swallow
níhoonó3oyéíhii na red-tailed hawk
woséinóóx na sharp-skinned hawk
hawthorn
boh'óoóníbino' ni hawthorn berries, scientific name Crataegus spp. (berries)
koh'úwuno' ni hawthorn, scientific name Crataegus spp.
hay
woxú' ni 1) grass, scientific name Poaceae spp., 2) hay
níísniikó'usí'i ni (pl) hay, alfalfa
haze
ceetéé ni 1) smoke (from a fire), 2) haze, 3) mist
hazy
ceetéése- vii to be hazy, misty, smoggy
he
nenéénit pronoun he, she, third person pronoun
head
3oo3oonei3e'ee ni the middle or crown of one's head
tebe'éís- vta to cut s.o.'s head off
tebe'éís- vti to cut someone's head off
3oontééc ni top of the head
3óo3oonííhi' adv 1) on the top of someone's head, 2) in the middle, at the height
hóókuhú'ee ni head
3óo3oon ni the top of one's head
bise'éíni- vai to stick one's head out or up from behind something
headdress
3ouxosuu ni headdress
heal
hííneyóó3ei- vai to heal people, make people well
hear
nííton- vta to hear s.o., understand s.o.
níítobééti- vii to be heard
níítobee- vai to hear
níítowóot- vti to hear s.t.
heart
téí'yoonbétee ni child's heart
bétee ni-dep heart
heat wave
heenesiteisooo' vii there is a heat wave
heat
hesítoo'óó- vai 1) to be hot, 2) to be in heat
hésxoh'- vta to heat someone (animate object)
heater
hesítee ni 1) fire, 2) furnace, heater, stove
heaven
hihcébe' particle 1) above, up, 2) in heaven
heel
betíít ni-dep heel
hello
tous exclamation hello
héébe exclamation hello, hello friend!
help out
níítehéí- vai to help out with things
help
níítehéít- vti 1) to help s.t., 2) to improve a situation
níítehéíbetíít ni help, helping one another
nííteheib- vta to help s.o.
helper
ho3ío' na a young man who serves as a helper, assistant or runner during a ceremony
hemlock
?ni'iboootou hemlock leaves
ceceecéí ni western water hemlock, a medicinal and ceremonial root, scientific name Cicuta douglasii
herd
híí3einóón ni 1) buffalo, 2) a herd of buffalo
híínoo'éíso'onéíhi- vai to be herded back together, have been herded back together
here
hii3- pv from there (to here)
no'úúhu' adv to here, up to a point or place
no'oeniihi' adv around, around here
híít particle here
húút particle here
húútino particle here, around here
céi3ííhi' adv here, in the direction of the speaker
heron
hité3oo na crane, especially a sandhill crane, heron, egret
hité3oo na crane, heron
hité3ounec na water drunk when breaking a fast during the Sun dance, according to Kroeber's "The Arapaho"
kookóósoonéíhii na 1) heron, egret, 2) also perhaps curlew, slough bird, rail or other birds with long, thin legs
wo'óúhuu na heron, egret
hesitation
'eee particle hesitation particle, similar to mmmmm.....
hiccup
hi3oonéé- vai to hiccup
hidden
bee3ebééxoyoo3ííhi' adv close by and hidden
hide
kotóús- vai 1) to be left behind, as when in hiding, 2) to hide, get under cover
bih'ío ni deer hide
nonííkuhnee- vai to flee and hide, be chased away into hiding
notóyeic ni 1) hide, 2) rind (e.g. of an apple)
nonííkoh- vta 1) to hide from s.o., 2) to run away from s.o.
héécen ni buffalo hide
heneeceinotoyeic ni buffalo hide
wonotóyeic ni-dep hide (animal skin)
yootísee- vai to hide
kotousine- vai to hide
hé'neenóóxobei- vai to hide horses, put horses in a safe place where they won't be found
yooh- vta to hide s.o.
yootíí- vti to hide s.t.
hierochloe hirta
ni'óxu' ni sweetgrass, Hierochloe hirta
high
ni'ouubéíhi- vai to be elated, high, intoxicated
co'oúu3ííhi' adv high, high-like
co'óúúte- vii to be high (e.g. a mountain, cliff)
co'oúú3oo- vii to be high (e.g. a mountain or hill)
3oo3oonísee- vai to be high overhead, e.g. the sun
co'oúútenéni- vii to be high up (e.g. up a cliff)
co'oúú3i- vai to be high up in the air
co'oúúhu' adv up high
highway
wó'teenbooó ni highway, paved road
hill
coo'ótoyóó' ni hill
coo'ótoyóó' vii there is a hill
co'ótoyóúhu' vii there is a small hill
coo'ótoyóúh- vii to be a small hill
hilly
conóóco'ótoyoo- vii to be hilly
có'otoyííni- vii to be hilly
hip
woce'ók ni-dep hip
hire
ho3i'ééb- vta to hire s.o.
hit on the head
besiite'ein- vta to hit s.o. on the head with an object
hit on the head
3é'ei3eih- vta to hit s.o. on the top of the head
hit
to'ob- vta to hit s.o., punch s.o., strike s.o.
béxoh- vta 1) to hit s.o., strike s.o., 2) to touch s.o., make contact with s.o.
to'ób- vta to hit s.o.
bés- vta to hit s.o., as with a bullet or arrow
to'óot- vti to hit s.t.
bex- vti to hit s.t. with an object
ko'ós- vai to hit something by accident, fall into or onto something
hoarse
cooniiséíhi- vai to have a hoarse voice
hoe
kóóxooteinihó'noox ni hoe, garden hoe
hold hands
nou'usééneti- vai to hold hands
hold on
nei'hónonih- vta 1) to hold s.o. tight or close to oneself (figuratively), 2) to cherish or respect s.o.
tóónonítii- vai 1) to hold on to something (figuratively), 2) to value something, cherish something
néí'bííhi' adv holding on in a tight manner
néí'be'éíci3- vta to hold on tightly to a horse's reins
téi'toun- vta to hold on to s.o. strongly
néí'iitííbi- vai to hold on to something tightly
hold
hee3íten- vta to grasp s.o., hold s.o.
niiwóh- vta to hold s.o. in one's mouth
niiwóh- vti to hold s.t. in one's mouth
níi3iní- vii 1) to be held, possessed, 2) to be available, at one's disposal
toun- vta to hold s.o.
néí'in- vta to hold s.o. tightly
toun- vti to hold s.t.
híínenéíhi- vai to be held and pointed in various directions (as the pipe is in a ceremony)
hole
tonooxóhei- vai to dig a hole
nóoxcítii- vai to dig a hole with hands or feet
toncítii- vai to drill a hole
notóóbe'éítii- vai to fill a hole
toonotí' ni hole, opening
tóno'wúúhowóótiini' vii a hole is/has been dug out there
tonotííni' vii there is a hole
nooxookóónee' vii there is a hole made by water, the ground was washed out by water
tóno'wúúheenííni' vii there is a hole there (e.g. a cellar, a cave, or some other enclosed space)
ko'éitónotí' vii there is a round hole
holiday
beesbéteeniisiini- vii to be a holiday
holler
níitóuuhu- vai 1) to howl, holler, yell, 2) (a mouse) to squeak
níitóuuhu- vai (an animal) to make a noise such as howling or bugling, (a person) to holler, yell
níitóuub- vta to howl at s.o., holler to or at s.o.
hóóxoeníitóúhu- vai to howl or holler back in response, answer back by howling or hollering
tóóyeitéé' vii there is screaming, one can hear screaming
tooyeinéétii- vai to be screaming on and on, make screaming or hollering noises
tooyéítoh'- vta to make s.o. scream or holler involuntarily
tooyéít- vti to scream, holler (involuntarily)
tooyéínee- vai to scream, holler (involuntarily, as when in pain)
niitóuub- vta to holler, yell at s.o.
hollow
niicisóó- vii to be empty, hollow
niiciseih- vii to be empty, hollow
holy
béteenííhi' adv in a sacred or holy way
béteeníse- vii to be happening or occuring in a holy way
béteenéíhi- vai to be sacred or holy
béteeneenebéíhi- vai to be thought of in a sacred or holy way, to be considered sacred or holy
béteeneenéét- vti to think about s.t. in a sacred or holy way, to consider s.t. sacred or holy
niibéébetóó'oot na person who is performing a holy ceremony, officiant
bétee- vai 1) to be holy, to habitually act in a holy or sacred way, 2) to have sacred powers
beteen- pv holy, sacred
beteenóó- vii to be holy, sacred
niibéteesébitit na person who is engaged in some holy endeavor
béteeh- vta to make s.o. holy, give s.o. holy power
home
hi'íyeih'i- vai to have a dwelling place, have a home
co'óókoo3ííhi' adv back at one's home
béyeihí' ni-dep home
hookoo3iihi' adv homeward, on the way home
heecikóóhu- vai to go home
homesick
neetóú3ecóó- vai to be homesick, lonely, lonesome, unhappy
hominy
koho'ookutó ni hominy
homosexual
hoxúx na 1) berdache, transvestite, 2) also applied to a homosexual person (of either sex)
hixonííni- vai to be homosexual
honeybee
nisickoho'ok na honeybee
hoof
wo'ox ni-dep fingernail, toenail, claw, hoof
niiskosei- vai to have two nails, claws or hooves
hookéíhtoo ni hoof
hoop
toonoo'óó' ni hoop
hope
kookóós- pv modal preverb, hope, want, 'I wish that...'
horizon
3o3outé' ni 1) horizon, 2) on the ridge
heenéi'ookú'oot horizon
horn
hiníínis ni horn, antler
hiiníínsi- vai 1) to have horns, 2) to be horn-like
horse ornaments
ceene'eici3oo ni horse ornament
horse
neecéés na gelding, castrated horse
hitoníhi'- vai 1) to own a horse, 2) to have something as a pet
bííyo3óú'u na colt
beh'eihóóx na old horse
nóhoo na stallion
héébetóóx na big horse
nonóúhtiinóóx na race horse
teexokúút na saddle horse, riding horse
tééxokuunóóx na saddle horse
yeihówoonoox na a chasing horse, used for pursuit
héso'óónoox na fast horse
woxhóóx na horse
hiwoxuuhóóx na horse
nóokúúsebéí- vai to own a white horse
horseback
tééxokuunííhi' adv on horseback
horsefly
niice'nóúbee na horsefly
horsetail
cenii3íse' ni horsetail, scientific name Equisetum spp. and Hippochaete spp.
hot sauce
nih'oubé'eek ni tabasco sauce, hot sauce
hot
hesítoo'óó- vai 1) to be hot, 2) to be in heat
hesxóúh'u- vai to have a fever, to be feverish, to be hot
hesteísi' ni a hot day
hesteiníísiini- vii to be a hot day
hésteiniisííni- vii to be a hot day
hesítee- vii to be hot (e.g. weather)
hescoowú- vii to be hot liquid (as in coffee)
house
besííno'oowú' ni log house
ho'oowú' ni house
hito'óowúú- vai to have a house
how far
he'íícis- pv 1) how far, how long (relative), 2) for some indeterminate length of time or distance
how far
tohúúcis- pv how far, how long (interrogative)
néé'eecis- pv that's how far, that's how long (cleft)
hei'oúúte' vii how far a landform extends
hei'- pv how far along something is in space, time or a series
how long
he'íícis- pv 1) how far, how long (relative), 2) for some indeterminate length of time or distance
tohúúcis- pv how far, how long (interrogative)
néé'eecis- pv that's how far, that's how long (cleft)
néé'eec- pv that is how long
how many times
tohúútox- pv how many times?
how many
he'íítox- pv 1) how many (relative), 2) a certain number of times
tohúútox- pv how many (interrogative)
néé'eetox- pv that's how many (cleft)
how
néé'ees- pv that is how, that is what, thus
tóús- pv what, how (interrogative)
hiis- pv what, how (relative)
nohuusóho- vii that's how it is, let it be that way
hee3- pv how, why, what
heesííni vii how it is, what it is like
héesóó- vii how it is, what it is like
tousííhi' adv how
hiisííni vii how it is
híisóó- vii how it is, what it is like
hii3éíhi- vai how someone habitually is
hiisííhi' adv how something is done, the way something is done
né'niis- pv that is how (cleft)
néé'eesííni- vii that is how it is
néé'eesóóni- vii that is how it is
néé'ee3éíhi- vai that is how someone is, that is what someone is like
tóúsoo vii how is it?
hiisísee- vai how someone got to a place, how someone made it through a test or trial
however
he'íítoxú- vai however many there are, it is now known how many there are
howl
hiini- vai (a dog, wolf, coyote) to cry, whimper, howl
níitóuuhu- vai 1) to howl, holler, yell, 2) (a mouse) to squeak
níitóuuhu- vai (an animal) to make a noise such as howling or bugling, (a person) to holler, yell
níitóuub- vta to howl at s.o., holler to or at s.o.
hóóxoeníitóúhu- vai to howl or holler back in response, answer back by howling or hollering
nini- vai (a dog) to howl
Hudson
Boo'oowú' ni 1) town of Hudson, WY, 2) Popo Agie creek
hug
he'ííten- vta to embrace s.o., hug s.o.
humble
ciiwoxoeenebetí- vai to be humble
hummingbird
bei'ci3éínii'ehíhi' na hummingbird
hetéín3e'enéíhii na hummingbird
hundred
beteetósoo' num one hundred
hunger
hésnóót ni 1) hunger, 2) famine
hesnóótiini' vii there is hunger, there is famine
hesinéé- vai 1) to be hungry, 2) (figuratively) to be starving
hunt
híínoo'éí- vai to hunt
hunter
híínoo'einén na a male hunter
híínoo'éíhii na hunter
híínoo'eihííni- vai to be a hunter
hunting
hiinóó'einííhi' adv having to do with hunting
hurriedly
nóxohóenííhi' adv hurriedly, in a hurrying manner
hurry
nóhohoobée3too- vai to hurry up and finish doing something
nóhohóúhu- vai 1) to hurry, 2) to be in a rush
noxúhu- vai to hurry, do things quickly
hurt
kóhtobee- vai 1) to be harmed, hurt or injured, 2) to have something wrong
hesowowutii- vai to ache, hurt
ceténowóhoetí- vai 1) to hurt oneself accidentally, 2) to get oneself into trouble
husband
nees na-dep my husband
hyssop
woxwohoonó' ni 1) a plant, possibly hyssop, scientific name Agastache spp., 2) a perfume made from this plant

I

I
nenééninoo pronoun I, first person sg. pronoun
ice cream
toyoowú' ni ice cream
ice pick
tónohou3óo ni ice pick
ice skate
siiwonéí- vai to ice skate
ice
wó'ow ni ice
icebox
toyoowóó3oo ni icebox, refrigerator
toyóówusé3oo ni icebox, refrigerator
icy
wo'owúúni- vii to be icy
identical
neehíí3eihi- vai 1) to be matching, be matched, 2) to be identical, the same
neehiisoo- vii to be identical, matching, the same
idle
no3onéíhi- vai to be idle
if
béh- pv might, if, potential
hih- pv if, contrary to fact
ill
hesówobéíhi- vai to be ill, sick
illegitimate
bii'e'éé'eesoo na illegitimate child
illness
hesówobeihíít ni illness, sickness, disease
howneenówobehíít ni serious illness
ill-tempered
seséíhi- vai to be mean, ill-tempered
illuminate
noh'óesein- vti to light or illuminate a place
illuminated
noh'óeséítee- vii to be illuminated (e.g. a place by natural light)
noh'óesei'óó- vii to be illuminated (e.g. a tipi)
noh'óéseiteeni- vii to be illuminated, lit up
noh'óeseicíí- vai to be in an illuminated place
imitate
nokó3ton- vta to copy s.o., imitate s.o.
immature
téí'yooniinóóni- vai to be emotionally immature, childish
téí'yoonootéíhi- vai to be emotionally immature, childish
immediately
nóhohoonííhi' adv immediately, instantly, soon
xoxonóu particle immediately, instantly
xonóuu particle immediately, instantly, right away
immense
heebe3ííhi' adv large, big, immense
imperative
hii- pv imperfective imperative
hee3óó- vii to be imperative, to be important
neh- pv emphatic imperative, "you had better (do something)"
imperfective
hii- pv imperfective imperative
nii- pv imperfective
important
bééxookeenén na 1) grown man, 2) important man
hee3óó- vii to be imperative, to be important
héetéíhi- vai to be important, influential
improve
níítehéít- vti 1) to help s.t., 2) to improve a situation
in order that
hét- pv so that, in order that
in time
téébehííhi' adv 1) just in time, 2) just now
in
3ei- pv in
cíit- pv into, inside
incense
ceh'éí- vai burn incense (from cedar)
cééh'ee ni 1) juniper, scientific name Juniperus communis, 2) incense
ceeh'éí'i- vai to burn incense, smudge cedar
income
cééstoot ni income
indeed
yeoh particle yes, indeed, you bet
indefinite
tóón- pv indefiniteness, as in 'wherever,' 'whenever,' etc.
indeterminate
he'íícisííhi' adv for some indeterminate length of time or distance, "I don't know how far or how long"
Indian paintbrush
kóúhuyóó' ni 1) Indian paintbrush, scientific name Castilleja spp. , 2) honey
Indian
3owó3nenítee- pv in an Indian way, Indian-like
3owó3nenítee na Indian person
industrious
heséíhi- vai to be industrious
infant
tei'yoonéhe' na child, infant
infinity
niicoonitete'inooni' ni ?infinity
inflate
nisóno'óó- vii to be swollen, inflated
nisoníciitoow- vta to inflate s.o., pump s.o. up (animate object, e.g. a tire)
nisoníciitoot- vti to inflate s.t.
inflation
woo'ówou3óóni' ni inflation (in prices)
influential
héetéíhi- vai to be important, influential
inform
cowoo3ítoon- vta to inform s.o.
information
niitówoó ni information, news
inhale
hi3konoo3éí- vai to inhale
hi3konóót- vti to inhale s.t.
injection
koxúkohú- vai to get a vaccination, get an injection
koxukóh- vta 1) to pierce, stab s.o., 2) to vaccinate s.o., give s.o. an injection
injure
hésiinííh- vta to injure s.o., do s.o. harm, hurt s.o.
injured
kóhtobee- vai 1) to be harmed, hurt or injured, 2) to have something wrong
hésiiníí- vai to be injured
innocent
hííyootehéh- vai to be an innocent child
insane
toowunéíhi- vai to be insane
insect
bíísee na 1) bug, insect, 2) ?worm
bííseenóxu' ni a medicinal mixture of several plants
inside
cii3ííhi' adv inside, within
cíi3hííhi' adv from inside a place (moving outwards)
ciitóowúú' adv indoors, inside something (e.g. a dwelling, a car)
cíitóowúú' particle inside a dwelling or structure
3ebcíi3ííhi' adv inside a place or area over there
3einííhi' adv inside (an area)
3éísi- vai to be inside
3éí'isi- vai to be inside (a container, a dwelling)
3éí'ise- vii to be inside (e.g. a container, a dwelling)
cíitóotéé- vii to be located inside something
insist
nihi'nééton- vta 1) to demand s.t. of s.o., 2) to force s.o. to do something, insist that s.o. do something
nihi'in- vta to insist that s.o. do something, force s.o. to do something
níhi'nei- vai to insist on something
inspect
néhyon- vai to inspect something, check something out
néhyonóóhob- vta to inspect s.o., check up on s.o. visually
nehyóntii- vai to inspect something, check up on something
kóho'uuh- vta to inspect s.o. carefully
inspection
nehyóhonííhi' adv concerning inspection, concerning checking up on something
instantly
nóhohoonííhi' adv immediately, instantly, soon
xoxonóu particle immediately, instantly
xonóuu particle immediately, instantly, right away
instruct
hiixoohoo3ih- vta to instruct s.o., teach s.o., to show s.o. how to do something
instructor
hiixoohoo3i3éíhii na instructor, teacher
instrumental
hi'ííhi' particle 1) instrumental, with, 2) about, concerning
hi'- pv instrumental, with, by means of, about
intense
nóxowúsee- vai to go through a time of intense experience, especially pain and suffering
intensely
nóxowúúhu' adv 1) intensely, greatly, 2) near, close, almost
intensifier
sii- proclitic intensifier, really, a lot, very
interpret
cowoo3ítoot- vti to interpret s.t., narrate s.t., translate s.t.
cowoo3ítee- vai to interpret
cowoo3ítoon- vta to interpret for s.o., translate for s.o.
interpreter
cowoo3íteihii na interpreter, translator
interrupt
towó'on- vta to interrupt s.o., get in s.o.'s way
intestines
3oox ni entrails, guts, intestines, bowels
3eisé3oono ni intestines
intoxicated
ni'ouubéíhi- vai to be elated, high, intoxicated
invisible
hoownoohobéíhi vai to be invisible
invite
noho'óúúb- vta to invite s.o., treat s.o. by paying on their behalf
iron
bé3e'xóh'oe ni flatiron, iron
be3e'xóh'ei- vai to iron
be3e'xóh'- vti to iron s.t.
island
benéhe' ni island
it
nenee' pronoun it, third sg. inan. pronoun
itch
cesíce'oo- vai to itch, be itching
cesíce'oo- vii to itch, be itching

J

jacket
hookoubiixúút ni jacket, coat
jackrabbit
wó'toteenóóku na jackrabbit
heebetooku na jackrabbit
jail
tóúkuhú- vai 1) to be tied up, 2) to be in jail
tóúkuhúúno'oowú' ni jail, penitentiary, prison
janitor
wotí'eyéíhii na janitor
woti'ohéíhii na sweeper, janitor
January
niikoxoo'óte' ni January
heecoxóóxeiht ni January
jar
ceeníhcoo' ni a transparent container such as a bottle, jar, or glass
jaw
wotóhko' ni-dep jaw, chin
jay
see3íínii'éíhii na clark's nutcracker, gray jay
cenééteenii'éíhii na bluebird, blue jay, stellar's jay, pinyon jay
jealousy
hih'éyooteihíít ni jealousy
nécesí3ecoot ni jealousy
jerk
tei'íhcehíít- vti to jerk s.t.
jerky
ho'úúw ni jerky, dehydrated meat, dried meat
hoo'einóúw ni supply of jerky
job
niisí3oó ni job, labor, work
niisí3ei- vai to have a job, work
join
wóóhonén- vti to join s.t. together
wóóhonísee- vai to join a group, unite, come together
joined
wóóhoníseenóó' vii things have come together, things have become linked or joined
joint
cenii3íse' ni joint (as in a body part)
joke
cóó'ob- vta to kid s.o., joke with s.o., tease s.o.
journey
niiwóó3heihíít ni the things which one carries on a journey
joyous
hónowú3ecoo- vai to be happy, be in a joyous mood
judge
hooxuwuunén na a person who is an official representative of the law, such as a judge, lawyer or congressperson
juggle
hooxóhoekúú3- vta to juggle s.o. (animate objects)
hooxóhoekúútii- vti to juggle s.t.
juice
biinínec ni chokecherry juice, chokecherry wine
July
3óó3oonbííceniisíís na July
jump
hihcéno'oo- vai to jump up
jump in
cíi3íhcehí- vai to jump into an area or place
jump over
noh'oxóót- vti to jump over s.t.
jump up
kohei'isíhcehí- vai to jump up from a sitting or lying position
jump
nóho'úhcéhí- vai to go upwards quickly, run or jump upwards
teesíhcehí- vai to get on to something rapidly, jump on top of something
hoowúhcehí- vai to jump off, get down or go down quickly, dismount
sii'eihcénoo'óó- vai to jump into water, dive in to water
cenoo'óó- vai to jump, leap
hooxuucenoo'óó- vai to jump across
cenoo'óó3- vti to jump at s.o.
cenoo'óót- vti to jump at s.t.
hoowcénoo'óó- vai to jump down
3éicéno'oo- vai to jump into some structure of enclosure
nóuucéno'oo- vai to jump outside
koxu3cenoo'óó- vai to jump over
hóóxuu'óót- vai to jump over s.t., jump across s.t.
híhcicéno'óó- vai to jump up
céecenoo'óó- vai to jump up and down
nebíhcehí- vai to make as if to jump
junction
héétwóóhonootéí'i ni junction
héétno'ootéí'i ni junction
June berry
héyowúúwukóó' ni bark of service berry or June berry bush, scientific name Amelanchier alnifolia (bark)
héyowúúwuno ni service berries or June berries, scientific name Amelanchier alnifolia (berries)
June
bííceniisíís ni June
nii'éé3neebíískootí' ni June
nííno'únoo'oo' ni June
juneberry
heyoo'úúw ni juneberry
juniper
cééh'ee ni 1) juniper, scientific name Juniperus communis, 2) incense
bé'3einó'o ni 1) cedar, 2) juniper
bé'3ein- pv having to do with cedar or juniper (Sabina scopulorum and Juniperus communis)
bé'see3 ni Rocky Mountin juniper, scientific name sabina scopulorum
tó'see3 ni juniper, scientific name Juniperus communis
just right
wó'éii3ów particle 1) just right, 2) right there
just
béébeet particle just, only
bééxo'ootíí' particle just, only
bí'- pv just, only
koúún particle just, only
céése' particle just, only
jut
3i'eibí- vii to jut out, stick out

K

kaolin
nookóóbe' ni kaolin, white clay for ceremonial painting, white paint
keep an eye on
hoonoyoohowun- vta keep an eye on s.o.
hoonoyoohoot- vta keep an eye on s.t.
keep in sight
néenoohóót- vti to keep s.t. in sight
keep up
cóóno'óó- vai 1) to be unable to walk or run, 2) to be unable to keep up
keep
nii3ín- vta to keep s.o., possess s.o., hold s.o.
nii3ín- vti to keep s.t., possess s.t.
keeper
nenii3íiyéi'ít na keeper
neniibíicóoonéét na keeper of the Flat Pipe
kerchief
nííse'eicí ni kerchief, scarf
kestrel
ciicííhii na sparrow hawk, kestrel
ketchup
bóó'oowu' ni ketchup
kettle
3ouhó'yoo ni kettle
key
kóónootoo'hóe ni key
kick
to'oxón- vta to kick s.o.
to'úx- vti to kick s.t.
kid
cóó'ob- vta to kid s.o., joke with s.o., tease s.o.
biixóxko'neenóte'uusóó na kid (young goat)
kidney
hitíí3i3 ni kidney
kill
noxowús- vai to be violently smashed and killed
néh'- vta to kill s.o.
béé3ih- vta to kill s.o., finish s.o. off
néíh'kuu3- vta to kill s.o. quickly and violently
nóxowuh- vta to kill s.o. violently through impact
killdeer
tí'iihii na killdeer
killer
neh'éíhii na 1) killer, 2) murderer
kin
néíto'éí na-dep my kin, my relation, my relative
kind of
beexúúhu' adv 1) a little bit, 2) kind of, sort of
kind
hisííne'étii- vai 1) to be gentle, kind, meek, tender, 2) (an animal) to be tame, 3) to be nice, friendly
king
bo'té' ni king (in playing cards)
kingfisher
níínebeh'eeét na kingfisher
noyéíhii na kingfisher
Kiowa
niiciihéíhiiteen ni Kiowa tribe
niiciiheihiinén na Kiowa
koh'ówuunén na Kiowa Indian
koh'ówuutéén ni the Kiowa tribe
kiss
niitén- vta to kiss s.o.
Kit Fox Lodge
nouuhnénnó' na Kit Fox men, members of the Kit Fox Lodge age-grade society
nóuuh'óowú' ni the Kit Fox Lodge age-grade society
kitten
wo'ouusóó na kitten
knee
ce'iiteyéí ni knee
kneel
xóó'oekuuceenóku- vai to sit down in a kneeling position
xóó'oekúú'oo- vai 1) to kneel, 2) (a horse) ?to rear
cee3í- vai to kneel
xóó'oekuu- vai to kneel, kneel down
knife
coo'óótoo'únoo'oo' wooxé ni pocketknife
wooxé ni knife
knit
hoxuyéí- vai to knit
knock down
céne3eih- vta 1) to knock s.o. down or off someplace, 2) to purchase s.o.
céne3éíh- vti 1) to knock s.t. down or off someplace, 2) to purchase s.t.
knock
tóne'eih- vta to cut or knock a hole in s.o.'s head
wotéíhei- vai to knock, make noise
knot
ce'eekuhú- vii to be in a knot
know
bééte'ín- vai to be curious, want to know
tese'éíhi- vai to know a lot, to be very knowledgable
no'ote'éíhi- vai to know a lot, to be very knowledgable
nehtiih- vta to recognize s.o., know who s.o. is
he'ín- vti 1) to know s.t., understand s.t., 2) to keep s.t. in mind, remember s.t.
xóuuwoote'ín- vti 1) to know s.t. correctly, 2) to have s.t. straight
he'iistoo- vai someone is doing something indeterminate, "I don't know what someone is doing"
nó'o3e'ín- vti to know a lot about something
he'ínon- vta to know s.o.
hiiyóóte'ín- vti to know s.t. cleanly, to learn and use knowledge in the right way
ní'e'ín- vti to know s.t. well
knowledge
he'íyoó ni clock, knowledge
knowledgeable
tese'éíhi- vai to know a lot, to be very knowledgable
no'ote'éíhi- vai to know a lot, to be very knowledgable
he'éíhi- vai 1) to be knowledgeable, smart, wise, 2) to be sane, of sound mind
known
néé'ee3e'ínonéíhiinóó' vii that is how something is known, that is how something is named, called
néhtiihí- vii to be known, recognized, familiar

L

labor
niisí3oó ni job, labor, work
labor
niisí3oot ni labor
lack
hoobeihíít ni the things which one is lacking, things which one doesn't have
hoobéíhi- vai to lack something, not have something
ladder
houúhuut ni ladder
ladle
hiitihiinoo' ni ladle
hiitihiiniinoo' ni ladle
laid out
no'óotéé- vii to be located or laid out in that way, to that extent
wóóhonóusé' vii things are laying together, laid out together
cowóotéé- vii to be laid out, extend along a certain direction, lead in a certain way
bééxo'óóteení- vii 1) (e.g. a camp) to be laid out in just that way, 2) it is placed in just that way
lake
ní'ec ni lake
ní'ecííni' vii there is a lake
lamb
hoteiisóó na lamb
lame
cii'ísee- vai 1) to limp, 2) (a horse) to be lame
cii'éíhi- vai to be lame
lamp
nóho'e3eeyóó ni lamp
lance
nouuse'éíci3oo ni long lance with a hook like a cane, staff
biixóó' ni lance, long piece of wood wrapped with otter fur, with a point, used ceremonially
land
bííto'ówu' ni 1) earth, ground, land, 2) sometimes extended to mean 'floor'
Lander
Howóh'oowú' placename town of Lander, WY
Kóx3i' placename town of Lander, WY
language
hinóno'eitíít ni Arapaho language
cé'eséíti- vai 1) to speak differently, 2) to speak a foreign language
heenetíít ni 1) language, 2) speech, 3) voice
cé'eseitíít ni foreign language
lantern
niixooneení' ni lantern
lard
níinén ni fat, lard, tallow
nookcebítee ni lard
large
béései3e- vai to be big, large, have a big body
bees- pv big, large
beesóó- vii to be big, large
beeseinoehi- vai to be big, large
heebe3ííhi' adv large, big, immense
cííno'onéí'oo- vii to be fairly large
lariat
séénook ni 1) rope, lariat, 2) a long scarf worn in the Dog Lodge ceremony
lark bunting
nóóku3e'íneehíhi' na 1) mockingbird, 2) lark bunting
lark
hééyeinoté' na horned lark
last
hitóóxu'óó- vai to be trailing, coming last
woon- pv 1) new, 2) young, 3) latest, most recent, last (e.g. day, week)
hitóóx- pv last
hitóóxu'oo- vai to be last
hitóóxu'oonoo- vii to be last
hitooxúsee- vai to be walking last (as in a group or line)
late
koutonéíhi- vai 1) to be late, 2) to take a long time to do something
later
hoo3ííhi' adv 1) later, 2) next time, 3) another time
bééxoo3ííhi' adv later, after a while
laugh
hoxo'oní- vai to laugh
hooxoohetí- vai to laugh to oneself
hoxo'oh- vta to make s.o. laugh
laundry
hehííse3ei- vai to do the wash, do laundry
hehiisé3oono ni laundry
law
hooxuwúút ni 1) law, 2) rule, 3) regulation
hiinóóxuwú- vai to change a law, reverse a law
hiixóóxuwú- vai to pass a law about something
lawyer
hooxuwuunén na a person who is an official representative of the law, such as a judge, lawyer or congressperson
lay down
sé'ciinén- vti to lay s.t. down flat
lay
ciiníhi- vii to be placed down, laid down
ciinén- vti 1) to lay s.t. down, put s.t. down, 2) to put a bad experience behind one
híísibén- vta 1) to lay s.o. down, put s.o. down, 2) to put s.o. to bed
lazy
3onóúhu- vai to be lazy
lead
niitówo'oo- vai to be first, be in the lead
he'nééxoh- vta to guide s.o., lead s.o.
níítobéeé- vai to be first in line, go first, lead
nó'oe'éíci3éí- vai to lead a horse here, in this direction
cebe'éíci3- vta to lead an animal along with reins or a rope
cebe'éíci3éí'i- vai to lead an animal along with reins or a rope
noo'éíci3- vta to lead an animal by a rope or leash
noo'éíci3- vta to lead an animal by rope up to a place
céíte'éíci3éí- vai to lead an animal towards the speaker
niitowóón- vta to lead s.o., go ahead of s.o.
leader
hé'neetéíhi- vai to be the leader, head of something, e.g. a dance
leaf
biicíís ni leaf
leak
cénii'oo- vii 1) to drip, 2) to leak
bíísii'oot ni 1) leak, 2) discharge
bisíínoo'oo- vai 1) to leak, 2) (liquid) to appear
lean-to
toukóóhowoot ni 1) lean-to, 2) porch, 3) umbrella
toukoohóe ni 1) lean-to, 2) shade (type of shelter)
besoowú' ni lean-to
leap
cenoo'óó- vai to jump, leap
noonóh'oxoo- vai to leap (as in a deer)
learn
neyéítii- vai 1) to go to school, 2) to learn, 3) to read
biisíínobéé- vai to watch an event carefully in order to learn about it and be able to do it for oneself
toyóú'uuwu- vai to remember a lesson, learn something and keep it in mind
biisíínowóó3it- vti acquire a skill or ceremony by watching others carefully
biisíínowoot ni act of watching something closely in order to learn about it (e.g. a ceremony or skill which one wants to acquire)
biisíínowoo- vai to learn something for oneself by watching closely
biisíínowóót vti watch s.t. closely in order to learn about it (e.g. a ceremony or skill which one wants to acquire)
hiixoohóótowoo- vai to learn
hiixoohóótowoo- vai to learn for oneself by observing carefully
hiixóóhob- vta to watch s.o. in order to learn, learn from s.o. by watching
leather
woo3onesí' ni 1) leather, 2) leather strap
leave alone
neníh- pv 1) leave something alone, let something be, 2) forget about something
cíínih- vta leave s.o. alone
leave behind
nóó3ib- vta to leave s.o. behind, as when going away from them
nóót- vti to leave s.t. behind, walk away from s.t.
leave
cebe'éí'oo- vii 1) to be passed by, 2) to be left behind (in travelling)
neyéisxóótiini' vii people are walking away and leaving
noo3- vta 1) to leave s.o. behind, 2) to abandon s.o.
bée3ii- vai 1) to finish camping, take down camp, 2) to leave a place behind, as in moving camp
neeni- pv leave it like that, leave it like it is
leavening
nisonóxoh'óe ni leavening agent such as baking powder or yeast
led
nó'oe'éícitonéíhi- vai to be led here for someone, in order to be given to someone
left behind
kotóús- vai 1) to be left behind, as when in hiding, 2) to hide, get under cover
left over
ceníí'iisíse' ni leftover, something extra
left
nowóó3 left side
nowoo3ííhi' adv on the left
nowóó3iihííteenííhi' adv on the left
left-handed
nowóo3i- vai to be left-handed
leftovers
nohóóxobee ni leftovers, meat scraps, remains from butchering animals
leg
towóónee- vai to have a broken leg
wó'oo3 ni-dep foot, leg
heeneyoonee- vai to have long legs
tooto'oonee- vai to have short legs
besihii'oo3í- vai to have a wooden leg
hi'oo3íínoo- vii to have legs (e.g. a chair)
leggings
wótoo ni 1) pants, trousers, leggings, 2) (pl.) underwear, panties
legs
biisóónee- vai to have hairy legs
lemonade
niscih'ebíít ni a sweet beverage (e.g. lemonade or pop)
lend
hiih- vta to lend something to s.o. (for a long period of time)
neeciih- vta to lend something to s.o. (for a short period of time)
let be
neníh- pv 1) leave something alone, let something be, 2) forget about something
let go
cíínkuu3- vta to release s.o., to let s.o. go, let s.o. loose
let loose
cíínkuu3- vta to release s.o., to let s.o. go, let s.o. loose
let
xouwoo3- vta to let s.o. do something
let's see
3íwoo particle let's see now, ok, wait
level
cectoyoo- vii 1) to be even, 2) to be level
cectonóóbe'eiyóó ni level (tool)
lever
noh'óhoé ni lever
liar
nentóúhu- vai to be a liar
lice
tei'bi- vai to have lice
lichen
niico'uno' a plant growing on rocks in the mountains, possibly a lichen
lick
nisóób- vta to lick s.o.
nisóót- vti to lick s.t.
licorice
woníseineehíís ni 1) burr plant, 2) a figure representing a burr painted on the body during the Tomahawk Lodge ceremony, 3) wild licorice, scientific name scientific name Glycyrrhiza lepidota,
lid
hokohóe ni 1) cover, 2) lid, 3) plug
lie down
hiisibííton- vta to lie down with s.o., go to bed with s.o.
sííco'óúhu- vai to stretch out and lie down
lie
híísibí- vai to lie down, go to bed
se'esíne- vai to be lying down, lying flat
heinóku- vai to be lying somewhere
sé'esíínoo'oo- vai to have laid down, be laid out
nentooyéí- vai to lie, tell a falsehood
nentoonób- vta to lie to s.o.
life
hííne'etíít ni life, living
honóh'oe'einííne'etíít ni the life of young boys, the way young boys live
cebíseeno'úúne'etíít ni the walking life, the roaming life, the travelling life
lifestyle
heenéistóót ni ways, customs, habits, lifestyle
lift
noh'en- vti to lift s.t. by hand, raise s.t. up
noh'enob- vta to lift s.o.
light switch
noh'óéseikúú3oo ni light switch
light
nook- pv white, light
noh'óóke- vii to be light outside, be daytime
noh'óesein- vti to light or illuminate a place
noh'óé' vii there is light (to see by)
nóh'ookono'óó- vii to become light
lightening
céheekú- vai 1) to blink one's eyes, 2) (the Thunderbird) to make lightning, 3) lightening to flash
céheekúút ni lightning
boh'ooo hiniic lightning
like that
hiisóho' vii like that
like this
hiisóho'uusííhi' adv like this way
like
hiisóho' particle this way, like this
wootíí particle it's like, it seems that, as if
ni'eeneb- vta to like s.o.
ni'eeneet- vti to like s.t.
lily
nihóónookúúno' ni glacier lily, scientific name Erythronium grandflorum
senéí'owúú3eet ni mariposa lily, scientific name Calochortus gunnisonii
limb
hitéi ni branch, treelimb
limit
cebe'éítii- vai to do something more than the limit, go beyond a limit
cebe'éítoo- vai to do something more than the number of times allowed, go beyond a limit
limp
cii'ísee- vai 1) to limp, 2) (a horse) to be lame
cii'koohei- vai to run with a limp
line
níítobéeé- vai to be first in line, go first, lead
nii3niiteiyeekúú- vai to stand in a line, queue
niitei- pv 1) line, 2) row
linked
wóóhoníseenóó' vii things have come together, things have become linked or joined
lip
béses ni-dep lip
liquor
nih'óó3ounéc ni liquor, any kind of hard alcohol (e.g. whiskey)
listen up!
noníh particle pay attention!, listen up!
listen
ceh'é3ih- vta 1) to listen to s.o., 2) to obey s.o.
ceh'e3it- vti listen to s.t.
ceh'é3tii- vai.t to listen to something
ceh'e3tíít- vti to listen to something
lit
noh'óesííhi' adv as if lit, like illumination
literate
neyei3éíhii na 1) pupil, student, 2) reader, literate person
Litte Wind River
Hóteikoh'owu' placename Little Wind River
little bit
beexúúhu' adv 1) a little bit, 2) kind of, sort of
Little Dipper
héécestéébiicéso'o' na Little Dipper
little
honóh'oehíhi' na little boy
beenihéhe' particle a little bit, few
hokeciihíh- vai to be little, small, tiny
hokecóúhu- vii to be little, small
hokecóúhuni- vii to be little, small
hokecii'óó'oo- vii to become little, small
noxowniiwo'óó- vii to become little, small
beex- pv a little, a little bit (more, farther, etc.)
live quietly
téiitoonííne'étii- vai to live quietly, live calmly
live well
ni'ííne'étii- vai to live well
live with s.o.
níí3e'etiib- vta to live with s.o., as in marriage
níí3e'etii- vai to live with s.o., live together
live
hiine'étii- vai to live, reside
nii3ííne'étii- vai to live together, live with someone
nii3ííne'étiib- vta to live with s.o.
liver
his ni liver
living
hííne'étiiwóóhu- vai to make a living, work to make a living
lizard
seeníwo' na lizard
load
bííno3oon- vta to load s.o. (anim. obj.) with things, pack s.o. up with things
tééxoot- vta to load things onto s.o. (animate object)
loaded
nóxonéíhi- vai (a person) to be loaded with things
loaf
có'coo ni bread, loaf of bread
có'oc ni bread, loaf of bread
loan
neeciihétiit ni loan
lobster
níískoséíhii na crab, lobster
locate
níiítoo- vai to locate camp, be located in camp
located
hóotéé' vii something is located there, something is arranged or laid out there, there is a camp there
hóoteení' vii something is located there, something is arranged or laid out there, there is a camp there
héntoo- vai 1) to be present, 2) be in a particular place, be located somewhere
no'óotéé- vii to be located or laid out in that way, to that extent
héntóu- vii to be located here, to be present
nee'éétoo- vai that is where someone is located, that is where someone is staying
locomotive
héso'óónotii na train, locomotive
locoweed
síísííyeibii3híít ni ?locoweed, ?crazyweed, scientific name Oxytrophis spp.
locust
nih'oocéíhii na locust, grasshopper
hiisxoxoheihii na locust
lodge
beyoowú'u ni (pl.) Arapaho religious and ceremonial life, especially ceremonial dances such as the Sun Dance and dances of each of the lodges
beyeih' na-dep lodge
log
besííno'oowú' ni log house
ce'íbes ni log
loincloth
wonóut ni breechcloth, loincloth
lomatium dissectum
nii'éétee' ni a plant known as bear root, biscuit root, pungent desert parsley or consumption plant, scientific name Lomatium dissectum, described by Kroeber as "a greasy, carrot-like root" (TA:32)
lonely
neetóú3ecóó- vai to be homesick, lonely, lonesome, unhappy
lonesome
neetóú3ecóó- vai to be homesick, lonely, lonesome, unhappy
long ago
ciixóotéé- vii 1) to be far away, 2) to be long ago, from long ago
long time
hooníí particle a long time, after a long time
kóu3- pv a long time, take a long time to do something
kou3ííhi' particle for a long time, after a long time
long
ciis- pv 1) far in distance, 2) long in time
heeneyoonee- vai to have long legs
hení'ei- vai to have long hair
henéíhi- vai 1) to be long, 2) to be tall
henóóceihi- vai (e.g. a rope) is long
téécxo' particle long ago
heyóó- vii to be long
look around
nóó'oenotnoo'éíni- vai to look all around, in all directions for something (as a guard)
nótnoo'éíni- vai to look around for things (as on guard duty)
look at
néenóóhob- vta to keep seeing or looking at s.o.
look for
notiih- vta to look for s.o., search for s.o.
nótiitii- vti to look for s.t., search for s.t.
notí'onéíhi- vai to be looked for in order to do something for someone, be looked for on someone's behalf
notéii3ih- vta to look for s.o. who will do something for you
notín- vti to look for s.t.
nótnoohóót- vti to try to see s.t., look for s.t.
look good
ní'noéyotí' vii it appears to be good, looks good
look over
tokóóxuunéí'ookú'oo- vai to look over or across a thing or place
look
hí3on- vta to resemble s.o., look like s.o.
teenéí'oo- vai 1) to look sad, 2) to frown
nei'óóhob- vta to look at s.o.
nei'oohóót- vti to look at s.t.
loose
kono'óé- vii to be loose, as in clothing
loosen
hookun- vti 1) to untie s.t., unlace s.t. , 2) to loosen a knot
hookun- vta 1) to untie, unlace (anim. obj.), 2) to loosen a knot
lope
noh'ukutii- vai to lope
lose weight
woxóónoo'oo- vai to lose weight
lose
henih- vta to lose s.o.
henetíí- vai to lose something
lost
noní3oxúuhéíhi- vai to have become lost or confused due to harassment
lot
nó'o3ííni vii there is a lot
lotion
xo'én- vti to apply ointment, rub lotion on
xo'éyoó ni ointment, lotion
loud
siiyeinóóni- vii to be too noisy, loud
beesiiséíhi- vai to have a loud voice
nooteinóóni- vii to be loud, make a loud noise
beeseití- vai to be loud, to talk loudly
louse
bei'téi na-dep louse, bedbug
yeinóú'u na louse nits (pl.)
love
bixoo3etíít ni love
bíxoo3- vta to love s.o.
bixóót- vti to love s.t.
lower
ceenén- vti to lower s.t.
lumber
se'béxo ni (pl.) lumber
lung
hiikón ni lung
lure
hitéíbih- vta to lure s.o.
lygodesmia juncea
be3énecó'ono ni rush skeletonplant, skeletonweed, scientific name lygodesmia juncea
lynx
3ouuyoteebexóókee na lynx

M

mad
cesoni3ecóó- vai to be mad, angry
hesnonóóton- vta to be mad at s.o., angry with s.o.
hesinih- vta to make s.o. mad, angry
3oxono'eisi- vai to make oneself mad (e.g. get mad at yourself because you fell down)
made
níísihéíhiinóó- vii to be made
maggot
hi'iisóó na 1) maggot, 2) (pl.) rice
magpie
woo'úh'ei na magpie
maiden
hiseihiitéí'yoo na young girl, maiden
majority
beeséis ni majority
make a living
hííne'étiih- vta to make a living for s.o., support s.o.
make camp
níiini- vai to make camp
make faces
héési'éí'oo- vai 1) to make faces, 2) to frown
make motions
niixó'ou'óó- vai to make motions, especially ceremonial
make
nííston- vta 1) to serve s.o., 2) to work for s.o., 3) to make something for s.o.
man
honóh'oe na (male) adolescent, teenager, youth, young man
heebe3inén na big man
hinenííni- vai to be a man, manly
hinén na man
mankind
hinénteeníít na 1) mankind, 2) nation, 3) existence
manly
hinenííni- vai to be a man, manly
manure
biihí3 ni manure, dung, animal excrement
many
howoh- pv many, much, a lot
woo3éí'i vii there are many of them
wóó3eenííni'i vii there are many of them (pl)
woo3éé- vii to be many
woo3éé- vai to be many
woo3éíhi- vai to be many
marble
ceeteyéhit na marble, pellet
march
nííteiséé- vai to walk in single file, march
March
hóótoneeniisíís ni March (month)
honootónoo'oo' ni March (month)
mark
wo3ono'úx- vti to mark s.t., carve s.t.
nooxóyoti- vii to be marked, notched
nooxeisé- vii to be marked
nooxeis- vti to make a mark on s.t.
market
hotóóneeno'oowú' ni market, store
marriage license
nííseekuunó3onohóe ni marriage license
marrow
cih'óhowoot ni bone marrow
seyóot ni marrow
marry
niib- vta to marry s.o.
marshy
nenkouté- vii to be marshy
mash
séyóúnob- vti to crush s.t. by hand, mash s.t., squeeze s.t.
mask
wowo'oniini ni mask
mass
béteentóot ni mass (religious service)
massacre
noo'oohetíít ni massacre
noh'oohetí- vai to massacre oneself
massage
tebéin- vta to rub s.o., massage s.o.
master
nooxunéíhii na master of ceremonies
mat
so'oo3óó ni 1) tablecloth, mat, 2) carpet, rug
match
neehiisoo- vii to be identical, matching, the same
neehíí3eihi- vai 1) to be matching, be matched, 2) to be identical, the same
síteekúú3oo ni match (for igniting fire)
wotóót ni match (to ignite fire)
matted
hinootéíni- vai to have matted hair
mattress
cechooó ni mattress
mature
hiisiií'oo- vai 1) (an animal or plant) to be mature, fully grown , 2) (an animal or plant) to grow up
hííxonoh'oehííni- vai 1) to be mature, grown up, 2) to be reliable, dependable
maverick
hiinonóóx na maverick, mustang
May
bíískootí' ni May (month)
bíískootiiniisíís ni May (month)
maybe
nooxéíhi' adv 1) maybe, perhaps, 2) probably
3i'- pv maybe, perhaps
meadow rue
hiwóxuuhoox hiwóxu' ni meadow rue, scientific name Thalictrum spp.
meadow
tonoxtééni' vii 1) there is a cave, there is an opening in the earth, 2) there is a meadow or clearing in the forest, 3) there is a tundra area beyond the forest
toonoxtééni' ni meadow or clearing in a forest
kó'einoxtééni' vii there is a circular meadow in the forest
meadowlark
cooxúcenéíhii na meadowlark
cóoxucéénee na meadowlark
mean
nó'otéíhi- vai 1) to be tough, mean, 2) to have power
woxéíhi- vai 1) to be bad, mean, 2) to be ugly
seséíhi- vai to be mean, ill-tempered
nonoxootéíhi- vai to be mean, vicious
noxóo3ih- vta to be mean to s.o., treat s.o. harshly
3oxonih- vta to treat s.o. meanly, mistreat s.o.
measles
ceecii'éíhi- vai to have the measles
measure
toko'óó ni pace, measure
tokóh- vti 1) to measure s.t., 2) to survey s.t.
tokó'- vti to measure out a distance by stride or pace
tokóh- vta to measure s.o.
tokoohóót- vti to measure s.t. by looking at it, estimate a measurement by sight
meat
3ebéx ni flesh, meat scraped from a hide
ho'úúw ni jerky, dehydrated meat, dried meat
nii3o'iní' ni ground meat, hamburger meat
sii'ehwo'oyóó ni boiled meat
hoséíno' ni meat
3o'óhcoo ni pounded, dried, shredded meat
3o'óseinootí' ni tender meat, pounded meat
medicinal root
he3owoonoxu' ni a medicinal root
hiicóoxuuwóxu' ni a medicinal root
medicine ball
to'oxowooo na medicine ball
medicine man
notónihéíhii na medicine man, doctor, physician
medicine switch
nóókohóé ni 1) water dipper, 2) medicine switch, 3) bucket
medicine wheel
beteenotii na medicine wheel
medicine
neníícisoxú'oo' ni a medicinal root, possibly bitter root, scientific name Lewisia rediviva
nótonohein- pv medicine, doctoring
wóxu' ni 1) medicine, 2) spiritual or ceremonial power or authority
hohookoohoo ni a medicinal and ceremonial root
wóó3o' ni a medicinal root, otherwise unidentified
hi3owóonoxú' ni Indian medicine
meet
nóúxon- vta to meet s.o., to make s.o.'s acquaintance
melt
te'cí'oo- vii to be melting, thawing
te'cí'oo- vai to melt, thaw
mend
hoxoyéí- vai 1) to sew something, 2) to mend something (by sewing)
hoxoyóót- vti 1) to stitch s.t., sew s.t., 2) to mend s.t., 3) to fix s.t.
hoxoyóó3- vta to mend s.o., stitch s.o. (anim. obj.)
menses
(?)beeteeno ni menses, menstruation
?nenii3eihinoo ni menses, menstruation
menstruate
nii3éíhi- vai to menstruate
?beetee- vai to menstruate
menstruation
(?)beeteeno ni menses, menstruation
?nenii3eihinoo ni menses, menstruation
mention
bisinihíít- vti to mention s.t.
merchant
hotóóneihii na merchant, seller
mercy
howóuunon- vta 1) to have mercy on s.o., 2) take pity on s.t., 3) sympathize with s.o.
hówouunónetíít ni mercy, pity
merganser
héébe3nookúúbeet na ?merganser
merry
hónobéíhi- vai to be cheerful, happy, merry
mesh
cih'óéése' ni screen, mesh
mess
noonsóó' ni 1) chaos, 2) confusion, 3) mess, disorder
metal horns
béí'ci3eiyeini3ee- vai to have iron or metal horns
metal
béí'ci3e' ni 1) metal, iron, steel, 2) coin, money
Mexican
co'cooniinén na Mexican person
co'cóóniisei na Mexican woman
midday
koh'uusiií' particle at midday, around noontime
3oo3ooníísi' midday, noon
koh'úúsiiní- vii to be midday, noon
3ooniisiini' midday
middle
3oonííhi' adv 1) below, less, in the middle, 2) at the summit (as of someone's head, or the course of the sun)
neehíi3éí' particle in the center, in the middle
3óówohóú'u' particle in the middle, at the center
neehii3éi'éékuu' vii it stands in the middle of something
3oo3oonííhi' adv in the middle
midget
tei3nén na midget
cesiitéíh'ii na mythical small person, midget
téi3neníteenó' na midgets
midnight
3ootece'ííni'éhk particle at midnight
3óontéce' particle midnight, in the middle of the night
midwife
neeseineeét na midwife, obstetrician
might
béh- pv might, if, potential
nonóónoko' particle might as well, it's worth a try
milk
be3énec ni, ni-dep milk
nii3óúyei- vai to milk (e.g. a cow)
nii3óún- vta to milk s.o., e.g. a cow
milker
níí3ouyóó na milker, milk cow
milkweed
he3ebéíhtoonó ni milkweed, scientific name Asclepia speciosa
milky way
bóoó ni 1) road, trail, 2) milky way
nonoocoo' booo ni Milky Way
hihcebe' booó ni Milky Way
Mill Creek
wosouhóne' ni Mill Creek
miller
hohookéhe' na moth, miller
million
nonou3óó ni million
mind
hiiní3ecoo ni 1) mind, 2) thought
minister
béteennih'óó3oo na minister, priest, preacher, missionary
mink
no'eihi' na mink
minnow
cíhi'nówo' na 1) minnow, 2) ?any small fish
mint
wóhoo na peppermint, mint scientific name Mentha penardi and Mentha arvensis
mirror
hesoohobetíít ni mirror
mischievous
kóhtowúh- vta to do s.o. harm, do something mischievous or harmful to s.o.
kóhtowee- vai to do something mischievous or harmful
misplace
noniikúút- vta to misplace s.o.
noniikúútii- vai to misplace something
miss
ko3en- vta 1) to miss s.o. when trying to meet, 2) miss s.o. when trying to grasp, catch, or hit
hii3ib- vta to miss s.o.
ko3- vta to miss s.o., as in shooting at an animate target
missionary
béteennih'óó3oo na minister, priest, preacher, missionary
Mississippi River
beesniicíe ni Mississippi River
mist
ceetéé ni 1) smoke (from a fire), 2) haze, 3) mist
mistake
nóntoot ni error, mistake
nóntoo- vai 1) to make a mistake, do something wrong, 2) to be wrong, do wrong
misty
ceetéése- vii to be hazy, misty, smoggy
mitten
3ooxé na glove, mitten
mix
nii3oxesnóun- vti to mix s.t., e.g. dough, cement
mixed
nííso'- pv 1) with, jointly, acting together, 2) mixed
mocassin lining
biixo'oh ni mocassin lining
moccasin
wo'óh ni 1) shoe, 2) moccasin
wo'ohno3oo ni moccasin top
mockingbird
nóóku3e'íneehíhi' na 1) mockingbird, 2) lark bunting
moist
hítoyóó- vii to be damp, moist
moisten
necíínookóónotíí- vai to moisten something, put water on something
moisture
híítoyóó' ni 1) moisture, 2) dew
molar
beexookú3 ni molar
moldy
niice'íse- vii to be moldy
mole
nouuciitóó3eihii na gopher, possibly also mole
niineeneiseikóóhut na mole
Monday
cóówo'óó' ni Monday
níísootoox nonóóke' ni Monday
money
béí'ci3e' ni 1) metal, iron, steel, 2) coin, money
ciinóhoé ni gas money
bei'ci3éii ni (pl.) money
bei'ci3éíb- vai to have money
monkey
heete'i'éít na monkey
3o3ohkuhú' na monkey
monotonous
ciisibínoo'óó- vai to get tired of something, find something monotonous
ciisíwoo3oo- vii to be monotonous, tedious
monster
heebe3nenítee na 1) big person, 2) monster
hiincebíít na 1) water monster, 2) alligator, crocodile
month
biikousíís na 1) moon, 2) month
hokootóú3i'éhk vii next month
monument
3í'eyoo ni 1) monument along a trail, 2) the pile of dirt in front of a sweatlodge, dug out from the firepit, 3) altar
nokooyóó3i'eyóo ni stone monument built at a fasting spot
moon
biikousíís na 1) moon, 2) month
hiiséi3e- vai (the moon) to be full
hiiséi3e- vai (the moon) to be full
hokootóú3i- vai (the moon) to be new
moose
hinénihii na moose
hinéni' na moose
see'iiní3eet na moose
morning star
nookóóx na 1) cross, 2) morning star
morning
nohkúseic particle 1) morning, 2) tomorrow morning
nooke'éhk particle 1) tomorrow, 2) tomorrow morning
nóóke- vii to be daylight, morning
nookéni- vii to be daylight, morning
tesnohkúseic particle very early in the morning
nohkuseicííni- vii to be morning
nohkuseicííni- vii to be morning
mosquito
toh'úúbeihii na mosquito
moss
tíítiicéi'ii ni moss
most
tees- pv 1) on top of, 2) very, most
kónohúúhu' adv 1) all, everything, 2) most, majority
hóuunée- pv really, extremely, the most
hóóyei particle most
hóóyei pv most
moth
hohookéhe' na moth, miller
mother in law
nehéíhe na-dep my mother in law
mother
néínoo na-dep (my) mother, (my) aunt (mother's sister)
mountain birch
nííyoo'óé ni red-bush, red birch, mountain birch, water birch, scientific name Betula fontinalis
mountain lion
bexookeesóó na cougar cub, mountain lion cub
bexóókee na 1) cougar, mountain lion, 2) also extended to tiger
mountain
3i'óó' vii there is a protuberance, mountain, pinnacle
hoh'enííni' vii to be mountainous, there are mountains
hohé' ni mountain
mountainous
hoh'enííni' vii to be mountainous, there are mountains
mouse
nóókookuu 1) white plume, 2) white mouse
hookúú na mouse
hookúúhuhu' na mouse (diminutive)
mouth
niiwóh- vta to hold s.o. in one's mouth
niiwóh- vti to hold s.t. in one's mouth
bétii ni-dep mouth
move along
neecísee- vai to go on along, move along, proceed
move camp
nó'oo'úúhu- vai to move camp, shift dwelling place to far away from the present location
move in a circle
noo'óén- vti to move s.t. around or about, as in a circle
move in the wind
nih'oobeesé- vii to move in the wind
nih'oobeesí- vai to move in the wind
move over
wo'wúsee- vai to move, move over, move along
move
ceibísee- vai to move to the side, move over, get out of the way
cebiihíítooni- vii (camp) is being moved along
cebííhi- vai to move camp along, past a place
wo'wúsee- vai to move, move over, move along
nouu3ííhi- vai to move out (e.g. of a house, camp)
wo'obén- vti 1) to move s.t., 2) to postpone s.t.
hiinííhi- vai to live in various places, move camp about
wo'wúúhu- vai to move, move camp farther along, change residence
nééco'on- vta to move s.o. along
movie
ce'ískuu3óó ni 1) film, movie, 2) equipment that displays a film or movie such as a projector or television
mow
ko'osóhei- vai to mow (e.g. a field)
mow
ko'osóh- vti to mow s.t. (e.g. a field)
much
howoh- pv many, much, a lot
nó'ot- pv much, a lot
mud duck
niibiiséébit na coot, mud duck
mud
ceyoxesnóó- vii the mud is deep
hóxes ni mud
hoxesiinec ni muddy water, dirty water
muddy
hoxesíínoowu- vii (water) to be murky, muddy
hoxesííni- vai to be muddy, dirty
hoxesííni- vii to be muddy
mule deer
bíh'ih na deer, mule deer
mule
bih'ihiihoox na 1) mule, donkey, 2) horned toad, horned lizard
murderer
neh'éíhii na 1) killer, 2) murderer
murky
hoxesíínoowu- vii (water) to be murky, muddy
sóótoowu- vii (water) to be murky
muscle
3ei3 ni 1) tendon, 2) cartilage, 3) muscle
mushroom
boh'óooníbeé ni 1) mushroom, 2) mushroom spores
muskrat
hiixoxo na muskrat
must
hóokuus- proclitic have to, must
hét- pv must, future imperative, supposed to
mustache
biisetinee- vai to have a mustache
mustang
hiinonóóx na maverick, mustang
mute
heeneyeicitéé- vai to be deaf and mute
mutton
hóteinoséíno' ni mutton, meat of sheep or lamb
mysterious
hoono3oobéé- vii to be mysterious
ceenonoo3óó- vii to be mysterious, of unknown cause

N

nail
notóóh- vti to hammer s.t., nail s.t.
wo'ox ni-dep fingernail, toenail, claw, hoof
niiskosei- vai to have two nails, claws or hooves
hootoohóé ni nail (metal fastener)
heenenkósei- vai to have long fingernails
naked
3oncéíhi- vai to be naked
biiséíí- vai to be naked
name
ní'ii3éé- vai to be called by a certain name
ní'ii3éíhi- vai to be called or named
nih'óó3ounih'ééhi- vai to be called or named a certain way by Whites
niisih'- vta 1) to name s.o., 2) to call out s.o.' name
niisih'íít ni name
néé'eesíh'iinóó- vii that is what it is named
ní'iite'íno- vii to be known by a certain name
nee'eesíh'i- vai to be named, called
niisíh'i- vai to have a name
nee'eesíh'- vta to name s.o., call s.o.
niisíh'iit- vti to name s.t.
named
néé'ee3e'ínonéíhiinóó' vii that is how something is known, that is how something is named, called
nap
nokohukóóhu- vai 1) to go to sleep, 2) to take a nap
nape
wóto' ni-dep nape, back of the neck
napkin
hehiixóó ni napkin
narrate
cowoo3ítoot- vti to interpret s.t., narrate s.t., translate s.t.
hoo3ítoot- vti to tell s.t., narrate s.t. (e.g. a story)
narrator
hoo3íteihii na narrator
narrow
hecesóó- vii 1) to be small, 2) to be narrow
kokoun- pv thin, narrow
nation
hinénteeníít na 1) mankind, 2) nation, 3) existence
native
hééteenenítee na a person native to an area
nature
néseihiinííne'étii- vai 1) to live in the wild, live with or in contact with nature, 2) to live as lived prior to reservation days
nauseous
neini'einoo'óó- vai to be nauseous
Navajo
coohoh'óúkutoot na Navajo
near
hóoxobéíhe' particle close by, near
neehéyei- pv close, near
too3- pv close, near
too3ííhi' adv near, nearby, close to something
hii'óxon- vta to be near s.o.
hii'óx- vti to be near s.t.
hii'outé- vii to be nearby
nearly
héyeih- pv almost, nearly approaching a goal
neat
hííyootéíhi- vai to be clean, neat
hííyoo3ínouhu- vai to be neatly dressed, wearing clean clothing
neck
bésonon ni-dep neck
necklace
wo'éín ni 1) necklace, 2) scarf, 3) tie
necktie
co'o'éín ni necktie, tie
needle
bei ni needle, pin
koto'oheibéí ni a very fine needle
negation
cii- pv negation (conjunct, irrealis interrogative, potential imperative)
néíhoow- pv negation (irrealis future, future imperative)
hoow- pv negation (irrealis negative)
neigh
teenéi3íbetí- vai (horses) to neigh or whinny back and forth to each other
nephew
ne3e'é3e na-dep (my) nephew
nerve
bíístoot ni nerve
nest
nohúúx ni nest
nestling
nii'ehíísoo na young bird, nestling
net
wónohnoocéíse' ni net
nettle
nii'eeso'sii'oo' ni stinging nettle, scientific name Urtica gracilis
never
how3o'- pv never
cíí3o'- pv never
new
woonéíhi- vai 1) to be young, 2) to be new
wooyoo- vii 1) to be new, 2) to be fresh
woon- pv 1) new, 2) young, 3) latest, most recent, last (e.g. day, week)
newborn
teebecéébii'oúhut na newborn
next day
hoo3íísiini- vii to be the next day
next time
hoo3ííhi' adv 1) later, 2) next time, 3) another time
next
ne'- pv narrative tense marker meaning then, next, and then
hoo3on particle ?next, upcoming
hítetó'oo- vai to be next, have one's turn coming next
hoo3- pv next in time, next in a sequence
nice
ni'éíhi- vai 1) to be nice, 2) to be handsome, good looking
ni'óó- vii to be good, nice, acceptable, ok
nickle
nookoyóúhu' ni nickle, five cent coin
niece
neesébi na-dep (my) niece
night
bííkoo particle 1) at night, 2) last night, 3) tonight
téce'íinííhi' adv at night, as if at nighttime
téce' ni night
tece'ííni- vii to be night
nookon- pv all night, until dawn
nighthawk
cis na nighthawk
nightmare
noní3e'eexú- vai to have nightmares
nighttime
bííkoonííhi' adv during nighttime
téce'íinííni- vii to be as if nighttime
nine
3í'otox num nine
nineteen
béteetox 3i'otóxuuni num nineteen
3i'otóxuuni' num nineteen
ninety
3i'otósoo' num ninety
ninth
3í'otox'ówoo- vai to be ninth
3ío'tox'ówoonoo vii to be ninth
nipple
niinéét ni 1) nipple, 2) bottle for feeding a baby
nit
yeinóú'u na louse nits (pl.)
hi3oox- vta to pick nits out of s.o.'s hair
no longer
hoowóóh- pv no more, no longer
cooh- pv no longer
hoowóóh- pv no more, no longer
no
hííko exclamation no
'éhté' particle no
kos particle no
noise
wotéíhei- vai to knock, make noise
wotéísee- vai to walk noisily, make noise while walking
nón3einóóni- vii to be noisy
nó'oteinóóni- vii to be very noisy
non3éíneecíhi' vii a lot of noise is being made
téí'oo' vii it makes a noise
howohnon3éíneecíhi' vii there is a lot of noise being made
wotéinííni' vii there is a noise, a noise has been made
wotéinóóni- vii there is a noise, a noise has been made
céhnotóúhu- vai to holler a lot, make a lot of noise
céhnotóú3ei- vai to make a lot of loud noise (e.g. bugling or whistling)
non3éíneecí3ei'i- vai to make a lot of noise
woteinóóni- vii to make noise
wo'éínooní- vai to make noise
noisy
nón3einóóni- vii to be noisy
nó'oteinóóni- vii to be very noisy
noisy
siiyeinóóni- vii to be too noisy, loud
none
hííyoohóú' vii 1) to be nothing, for there to be none of something, 2) to disappear, vanish
hoowúúni vii not, none, nothing
hoowúúhu' adv none, not
noon
koh'uusiií' particle at midday, around noontime
3oo3ooníísi' midday, noon
koh'úúsiiní- vii to be midday, noon
North Platte
béi'i'éíniiciihéhe' ni North Platte River
north star
nenowó3o' na north star
north
nenebííhi' adv north, in the north
Northern Arapaho
Bo'óóciinén na Northern Arapaho
Nookhoosinen ni a term for Northern Arapaho
Be'eekunen na a term for Northern Arapaho identified by Kroeber
Nenebinén na term for Northern Arapaho identified by Kroeber
nose
bé'is ni-dep 1) nose, 2) beak
nosebleed
ceitónee- vai to have a nosebleed
nostril
toneenííwoo ni nostril
not far
hoowúciisííhi' adv not far away
not
hoowúúni vii not, none, nothing
hoowúúhu' adv none, not
notch
nooxóyoti- vii to be marked, notched
nooxóyesí- vii to be marked by a notch
nooxoyóx- vti to make a notch in s.t.
nooxoyes- vta to notch s.o.
notebook
wo3ónohóe ni paper, book, notebook, mail, anything made of paper
nothing
hoowúúni- vii to be nothing, zero
hoowúúni vii not, none, nothing
hiyohóú'uni- vii there is nothing, it does not exist
notice
3ooxúúnon- vta to notice s.o., catch sight of s.o.
3ooxúún- vti to notice s.t.
November
seniicénkoo' ni November
beescéneeniisíís ni November
now and then
heenee'ííhi' adv 1) now and then, from time to time, 2) seldom, occasionally
now
woow particle now, already
téébehííhi' adv 1) just in time, 2) just now
téébe particle just now, just in time
hiiwóónhehe' adv 1) now , 2) these days
Nowood, WY
Kóúwoo'óé' placename Nowood, WY
number
hee3ou'usí- vii to have a number, be numbered
nun
heenínouhúúsei na nun
nurse
notónihéísei na 1) female nurse, 2) female physician's assistant
notónihiinén na 1) male nurse, 2) male physician's assistant
nih'oonóúhu- vai to nurse a baby, breastfeed
nut
niikóó'owú' ni nut
nutcracker
see3íínii'éíhii na clark's nutcracker, gray jay

O

oak
hohooco ni oak tree, scientific name Quercus spp.
oar
cowouhóéé ni oar
oath
hiihkohóó'oo- vai to take an oath, make a pledge, swear
oatmeal
kohyé'eek ni oatmeal
oats
wóxhooxebii3híítono ni oats (pl.)
wóxhooxebii3íb ni oats (pl.)
obese
cowooówu- vai to be obese, overweight
obey
ceh'é3ih- vta 1) to listen to s.o., 2) to obey s.o.
oblong
xooóyoo- vii to be oblong
observe
hesoohob- vta to watch s.o., observe s.o.
obstetrician
neeseineeét na midwife, obstetrician
obtain
cééstoo- vai to procure or obtain something, buy something (typically for oneself)
cééston- vta to procure or obtain something for s.o., buy something for s.o.
céésih- vta to procure or obtain s.o. (anim. obj., e.g. a horse)
obvious
he'íneeyóó- vii 1) to be visible, 2) to be obvious
he'íneeyoo adv in a visible or obvious way
occasionally
heenee'ííhi' adv 1) now and then, from time to time, 2) seldom, occasionally
occupy
héntoot- vti to occupy s.t.
ocean
heetec ni 1) large body of water, 2) ocean, sea
October
céénkoo' ni 1) fall, autumn, 2) October
cénkoo- vii (leaves) to fall
nii'cénkoo' ni October
odor
bénou'oo- vii to have an odor, smell
offend
heswóoo3ih- vta 1) to offend s.o., 2) to provoke s.o.
offering
hoseiyoo ni offering, the act of giving something away
hóseihoowú' ni Sun Dance Lodge, Sun Dance ceremony
officer
touku3éíhii na police officer
co'ouutookéé na high-ranking officer
beníiinóókee na military officer
officiant
niibéébetóó'oot na person who is performing a holy ceremony, officiant
offspring
hitéí'yoonííbi- vai to have a child, have offspring
nóó3sei- vai to have many children, many offspring
howúhsei- vai to have many children, offspring
often
toco'onííhi' adv frequently, often
toco'on- pv frequently, often
oh no!
'éiyó' particle oh no!
oil
cebítee ni any oil including cooking oil, shortening, grease, gasoline, kerosene, petrolium
wo'teencebítee ni crude oil
ointment
xo'én- vti to apply ointment, rub lotion on
xo'éyoó ni ointment, lotion
xo'éneti- vai 1) to apply ointment on oneself, 2) ointment
ok
wohéí particle 1) greeting, "well!", 2) narrative particle, well, ok, yes
3íwoo particle let's see now, ok, wait
ni'óó- vii to be good, nice, acceptable, ok
ni'iiní- vii that's fine, it's ok, it's good
'íne particle 1) yes, 2) ok, well
'ínehouú particle 1) yes, 2) ok, well
tous particle well then, so then, okay then
hih'óó particle okay, all right, fine
nóhowóh particle is everything okay?
Oklahoma
bó'oobé' ni Oklahoma
old time
héétee particle 1) before, prior, previous, earlier, 2) in ancient times, traditionally
old
béésnenítee na elder, old person
ko3éinííhi' adv of an old type, ancient
betebihóókec na old cow
beh'eihóóx na old horse
betebih'ehíhi', betébihíhi' na little old woman (diminutive)
betebihíísei na old woman
beh'ííhehihí' na little old man (diminutive)
ko3éí- pv old, from long ago
beh'ííhehí' na old man
beh'iihehííni- vai to be an old man
ko3eiyóó- vii to be old
beh'éíhi'eibéé- vai to be old
older sister
nébi na-dep (my) older sister
older
beesísei- vai to be an older or bigger girl or woman
omit
nóó3toowoot- vti to omit s.t., leave s.t. out
on its own
niihen- pv by oneself, of one's own accord
on one's own
niihéyoo adv by oneself, on one's own
on
teesííhi' adv on top of
once
hei'- pv 1) when (RELATIVE), 2) once (something has occurred)
ceeséy particle 1) one, 2) once, one time
ceeséi- pv once, one time
híí'oohówun particle once that is done, once that is finished (then the next thing can be done)
one after another
nííteinííhi' adv one after another, as in a line
one by one
nóonóxoo particle one by one, each in its turn
one
céése' na a, one, another
nííseihi- vai 1) to be one, 2) to be alone
ceeséy particle 1) one, 2) once, one time
beebííti' particle one after the other
niisetí- vii to be one
ongoing
nosounííhi' adv still, ongoing
onion
xoucén na onion, scientific name Allium spp.
only
béébeet particle just, only
bééxo'ootíí' particle just, only
bí'- pv just, only
níis- pv 1) only, 2) alone
bééxo'- pv only
bééxo'éé- vii there is only (something)
bééxo'úúhu' adv only
ooze
3ookúú'oo- vii to ooze
bísecei'óó- vii to ooze from the ground
open one's eye(s)
koonookú- vai to open one's eye(s)
koonookúhcehí- vai to open one's eyes quickly
open one's mouth
té'etonetí- vai to open one's mouth for s.o.
té'etneekóóhu- vai to open one's mouth quickly
open
koonííteetee- vii (a door) to be opened
hó3es particle in the open, plainly visible
kóonííteení- vii it can be opened, it opens
koonotí- vii to be open
koonén- vti to open s.t.
koonkúú3ei- vai to open something quickly
opening
toonotí' ni hole, opening
opossum
hetóxoonéíhii na opossum
toxoonineihii na opossum
opportunity
héneebees particle 1) have the opportunity to do something, 2) take advantage of an opportunity
opposite
nóókooto'n- vta to be facing s.o., opposite s.o.
neyéisííhi' adv separating, going opposite ways
honohúbe' particle on the opposite side, on the other side
or
wo'éí3 particle or, but
orange
niihooníce'éé' ni orange
order
hooxúwuh- vta 1) to order s.o., give s.o. an order, 2) to establish a rule or restriction for s.o. to follow , 3) to sentence s.o., as in a court
organ
niibeiikúú3oo ni something that makes music or sound, e.g. an organ (musical instrument), phonograph record, audio tape, cd, tape player, cd player, etc.
3eisé3oó ni internal organ
oriole
séskout na oriole
ornament
neyoo'uut ni 1) ornament, 2) cosmetics, makeup
Osage
wosootiinén na Osage
other side
tokóóxuunííhi' adv across, on the other side
kóxtoúúte' ni a location on the other side of a hill or mountain
other
kóxuu- pv another, alternative, different
honohúbe' particle on the opposite side, on the other side
henees- pv strange, foreign, other
hoo3óó'o' na 1) (plural) others, 2) (plural) the rest, 3) (plural) some
otter
yeiy na otter
otterweed
yéyeinoxúús ni hairgrass, may also be called 'otterweed', scientific name Eleocharis spp.
ouch
'oo'hó exclamation ouch!
'oo'xú exclamation ouch!
out
noehí- vai to come or go out, come or go outside
nouu3ííhi- vai to move out (e.g. of a house, camp)
bis- pv up, out
outdoors
cé'e3í' particle outdoors, outside
outhouse
céénokuhcehéíno'oowú' ni outhouse, bathroom, restroom
biihííno'oowú' ni outhouse
outlaw
heeci'eicihít na outlaw
heeci'eicihííni- vai to be an outlaw
outside
cé'e3í' particle outdoors, outside
nóuúhcehí- vai to run outside, go outside quickly
outstanding
nééheekúú- vai to be outstanding
over there
húú3e' particle there, over there
3ebíisííhi' adv in that direction, towards over there
over
béetó'oo- vii 1) to be finished, over, done with, 2) to pass away, 3) to run out, disappear
bee3iiníse- vii to be finished, over
kóxu3i' particle over a hill, over a ridge
over
kox3ííhi' adv over the top of a hill or mountain, on the other side of a hill or mountain
overpower
néétoxuuh- vta to overpower s.o.
overseas
3ebóóxonóo particle 1) overseas, across the ocean, any place overseas or across the ocean, 2) across the river
oversee
heetéíhiiwoon- vta to oversee s.o.
overtake
cóówo'on- vta to overtake s.o.
overweight
cowooówu- vai to be obese, overweight
owe
hoo3i'ín- vta 1) to have a hold on s.o., have a line around s.o.'s feet, 2) to be owed money by s.o.
owl
nookubee3ei na 1) white owl, 2) used figuratively to refer to snowy weather or frost
béé3ei be'éíh na eastern screech owl
béé3ei béeséí3 na great horned owl
béé3ei na owl
tebe'eibee3ei na prairie owl, burrowing owl
own
nííhenéíhi- vai to own something, possess something
ox
híítoohuunóókec na ox
niikoo'ouútisee3i' na oxen (pl.)

P

pace
hiince'ísee- vai to pace, walk back and forth
toko'óó ni pace, measure
heneebísee- vai to pace around, walk anxiously
pack rat
bééxookuu na 1) pack rat, 2) wood rat
pack
bííno3óóhu- vai to carry a load, pack something
bííno3oon- vta to load s.o. (anim. obj.) with things, pack s.o. up with things
packhorse
bííno3éeenóóx na packhorse
hiníínoxuunóóx na packhorse
padlock
có'ootoo'ohóe ni padlock
pail
niice'enooó ni pail
pain
hesowowú3eií- vai to be in pain
sesiinóókowuu- vai to be in pain
hoonotóú'u- vai to feel pain from being burned
paint bag
hinowun ce'eiyoo ni paint bag
paint
ho'éeét ni 1) paint, 2) clay
nookóóbe' ni kaolin, white clay for ceremonial painting, white paint
bé'en- vta to paint s.o. red
bo'xúsin- vta to paint s.o. red ceremonially
béí'oo'oee3- vti to paint s.t. red
wo'teenóóbe' ni black paint
wo'tóóbe' ni black paint
woxusíít ni ceremonial paint
nookoo3eines ni green paint
hinów na red ceremonial paint
wóxusii- vai to paint ceremonially
hóóno'oéi- vai to paint, e.g. a wall
hoono'oeé3- vta to paint s.o.
woxúsn- vta to paint s.o. ceremonially
ho'oeétii- vai to paint something
nihoonóóbe' ni yellow paint
paintbrush
woxesiit ni paintbrush
ho'oee3oo ni paintbrush
painter, ceremonial
woxusyéíhii na person who paints ceremonially
painter
ho'éíhii na painter
pair
heeniisóóneenóú'u vii 1) there are two of them, there is a pair, 2) there are twins
palate
wonóu'o ni-dep palate
pale
nooku'éí- vai to be pale
palm
sei'3éé3oo ni palm of hand
palomino
nonookúúsooninéét na palomino
pamper
téí'yoonoo3- vta 1) to treat s.o. like a child, 2) to to pamper s.o.
pan
besnóoó ni 1) wooden vessel such as pan or plate, 2) extended to dishes or tableware not made from wood
ko'yeiyóó ni frying pan, skillet
panther
wo'teenbexóókee na black panther
pants
wótoo ni 1) pants, trousers, leggings, 2) (pl.) underwear, panties
nih'óótoohéé- vai to be wearing tight pants
paper
ce'éíyoó ni 1) container, 2) paper bag
wo3ónohóe ni paper, book, notebook, mail, anything made of paper
parent
nenííheií na-dep my parents
parfleche
ho'úwoonó3 ni parfleche, bag for jerked meat
participate
nohcó'oo- vai to participate, take part in something
nííhoobéínoh'úúnee- vai to be allowed to participate
partner
béíteh'éí na-dep friend, partner
pass along
cebíxotii- vai 1) to pass something along, as a custom or ceremony, 2) to carry something
cébtii- vai to pass something along
pass away
béetóó'oo- vai 1) to be gone, 2) to have passed away, died
pass gas
cééti- vai to fart, break wind, pass gas
pass on
cebenowuun- vta to pass on s.t. to s.o.
cebén- vta to pass s.o. on
cebén- vti to pass s.t. on
pass out
cee'én- vti to distribute s.t., pass s.t. out
neetih'ebí- vai to pass out (e.g. from drinking)
pass
cebísee- vai to pass by, go by, walk by
cebii'óónoo- vii to come to be, come to pass
ceb- pv pass by
cebikóóhuuhéí- vai to pass by, when on horseback
cebikóóhu- vai to pass by, travelling in a vehicle
cowoo'úsee- vai to pass by when in a wheeled vehicle such as a wagon or wheelchair
cebe'éí'oo- vii 1) to be passed by, 2) to be left behind (in travelling)
cebíhcehí- vai to pass rapidly by, run by
past tense
nih- pv past tense
past
3ebóoséi3ííhi' adv 1) back there, away over there, 2) in the past
cebííhi' adv beyond, past
heh- pv narrative past tense form used with numbers
tih'ii- pv past habitual, whenever
he'ih- pv TAM preverb, glossed NARR because it is used in the narrative past tense, requires Irrealis conjugation
paste
kohyóhoé ni glue, paste
pastry
nisíkoc ni cake, baked goods, pastry
pasture
3einóóxobee ni pasture
path
nóoxeihíít ni a path, tracks
paunch
béé3ií ni 1) belly, paunch, 2) lining of the paunch of an animal
pay attention!
noníh particle pay attention!, listen up!
pay
hóótoonéíhi- vai to be paid
hoonotoonowuun- vta to pay for s.o.
hoonotoon- vta to pay s.o.
paycheck
nooko3onohóé ni paycheck
pea
ce'wonííhiiho' ni peas (pl.)
peacefulness
ní'onéébetíít ni peacefulness, feeling good together
peach
biisíb ni peach
beniisíce'éé' ni peach
peak
3onouyoteyóó' ni peak of a mountain
pear
3ouuyice'ee' ni pear
pearly everlasting
céínohúútono ni pearly everlasting, scientific name Anaphalis margaritacea
peavine
3ííkonwonííhiiho' ni (pl.) possibly chainpod, peavine, scientific name Hedysarum spp., or sweetclover, scientific name Melilotus spp.
peek
hiiwookú'oo- vai 1) to peek, watch or see someone while hiding, 2) to spy on someone
hiiwoohob- vta to peek at s.o.
peel
ciixóen- vta to peel s.o.
ciixóen- vti to peel s.t.
cíhiixoén- vti to peel s.t.
peg
3ííxo'óé ni 1) peg, 2) stake
pelican
heniiniibsíceit na pelican
3iikó'ei na pelican
pellet
ceeteyéhit na marble, pellet
pemmican
ceb ni pemmican
biiniceb ni pemmican made with chokecherries
pen
wo3onóhooé ni writing implement, pen, pencil
pencil
wo3onóhooé ni writing implement, pen, pencil
penis
bó'os ni glans, head of the penis
bei3óó ni-dep penis
penitentiary
tóúkuhúúno'oowú' ni jail, penitentiary, prison
penny
nííbe'ehíht ni penny
pension
niiko'óéyei- vai to receive a pension, be on social security
penstemon
wookúúno' ni penstemon, beardtongue, scientific name Penstemon spp.
people
no'o3nentóóhu- vai to be a lot of people around
pepper
woo'teennih'óúcoo' ni black pepper
bee'nih'óúcoo' ni red pepper
nooknih'óúcoo' ni white pepper
peppermint
wóhoo na peppermint, mint scientific name Mentha penardi and Mentha arvensis
perceive
ní'obee- vai to be able to perceive something
perfect
beeyóó particle 1) perfect, just right, right on!, 2) directly
perfume
woxwohoonó' ni 1) a plant, possibly hyssop, scientific name Agastache spp., 2) a perfume made from this plant
perhaps
nooxéíhi' adv 1) maybe, perhaps, 2) probably
3i'- pv maybe, perhaps
permit
xóuuwoo3ib- vta to permit s.o. to do something, allow s.o. to do something
xóuuwoo3ih- vta to permit s.o. to do something, allow s.o. to do something
persecute
néenonih- vta 1) to continually bother s.o., 2) to continually persecute s.o.
noxúuh- vta to bother s.o., persecute s.o.
nosóúnoxuuh- vta to keep bothering, harassing or persecuting someone
persist
noh'óunéé- vai to persist, keep trying
persistant
nih'óunéé- vai to keep trying something, be persistant
person
hinenítee na person
perspiration
kóúwo'oot ni perspiration, sweat
perspire
kouwo'óó- vai to perspire, sweat
pestle
3o'ohóunoo ni pestle
pestle
3o'ohuuwúnoo ni pestle for preparing jerky
pet
hitoníhi'- vai 1) to own a horse, 2) to have something as a pet
hitonoh'óoo3éíhi- vai to be taken as a pet by someone
petrolium jelly
seencéí ni petrolium jelly, Vaseline
ko'óéyoó ni petrolium jelly, Vaseline
peyote drum
hóho'yóóxuunó'eiihi' na peyote drum
Peyote Lodge
ho'yóóxuunokóy ni Peyote Lodge
peyote
hóho'oyóóx na 1) cactus, scientific name Cactaceae spp. and Opuntia spp., 2) peyote, scientific name Lophophora williamsii
pheasant
nih'oo3oucénee na pheasant
kóhtowucénee na pheasant
héyookoo3éíhii na pheasant
heeyookóó3iit na pheasant
phlox
tóóxu'óó' ni 1) phlox, scientific name Phlox spp., 2) thistle, scientific name Cirsium spp., probably Cirsium edule
photograph
wo3oninoo'óh- vta to take a picture of s.o., a photograph of s.o.
wo3oninoo'ootíí- vai to take a picture of something, a photograph of something
wo3oninoo'oo3éí- vai to take a picture, photograph
wo3onínoo'óót na 1) picture, 2) photograph
phrase
nihíít ni 1) word, 2) saying, phrase
physician
notónihéíhii na medicine man, doctor, physician
piano
niitouúkuu3óó ni piano
pick
tónohou3óo ni ice pick
cíh'o'wuuhóé ni pick
ko'úyei- vai to pick berries
ko'ún- vti to pick s.t. (e.g. a flower)
picture
wo3onínoo'óót na 1) picture, 2) photograph
wo3oninoo'óh- vta to take a picture of s.o., a photograph of s.o.
wo3oninoo'ootíí- vai to take a picture of something, a photograph of something
wo3oninoo'oo3éí- vai to take a picture, photograph
pie
beesbínoc ni pie
pierce
koxukóh- vti to pierce s.t., stab s.t.
ceitóóhetíít ni piercing of the ears
ceiteehí- vai to have pierced ears
tones- vta to pierce a hole in s.o.
tonen- vti to pierce a hole in s.t.
ceitóóh- vta to pierce someone's ears
pig
nih'oo3ouwóx na pig
see'ii3éét na pig
pigeon
bííteih'íí na 1) pigeon, 2) dove
piggyback
3éí'iikoh- vta to carry s.o. piggyback
pike
biiseenówo' na pike
pile up
co'óóbe'éín- vti to pile s.t. up, e.g. dirt
pile
nó'otooyéítee' vii there is a big pile of something
co'ooyéíse- vii to be piled up
co'ooyeitíí- vai to pile something, e.g. wood
pill
ceeteyóúhu' ni pill
pillow
be'íitóoó na 1) triangular back rest made of willow twigs, 2) pillow
wohunohóé ni ?backrest, pillow
be'íitóoó na 1) triangular back rest made of willow twigs, 2) pillow
pin
bei ni needle, pin
pinch
3i'ci3- vta to pinch s.o.
pine
hiséé3 ni spruce, pine, scientific name Pinus spp.
nóókusee3 ni lodgepole pine tree, scientific name Pinus contorta
pink
bihceyóó- vii to be pink
pinnacle
3i'óó' vii there is a protuberance, mountain, pinnacle
pinto
kookúteenéíht na pinto
pipe stem
hí'e3 ni pipe stem
pipe
hiixóóko- vta to fill a pipe
híicóoó na pipe, cigar, cigarette
se'eicooo ni Flat Pipe
?houno3oniiicoo ni a 'pipe of settlement'
niibíicó'onee- vai to carry a pipe along on a trip and use it for smoking
pistol
tó'oo' ni pistol, revolver
pitch
cei na 1) gum, pitch, resin, 2) sap
see3céí ni pine pitch, pine resin, pine sap
pitchfork
néésouni- vii to be forked into three prongs
yeneiyóúni' ni four-pronged pitchfork
pitiful
hetebínouhúúni- vai 1) to be pitiful, 2) to be feeble, 3) to be poor
pity
howóuunon- vta 1) to have mercy on s.o., 2) take pity on s.t., 3) sympathize with s.o.
hówouunónetíít ni mercy, pity
place
ciiníhi- vii to be placed down, laid down
ciinéntoyóótiini' vii people have placed/are placing something ceremonially, as part of a ceremony
plain
hí3o'owúú' ni 1) prairie, 2) plain
plane
céctonoxónoo ni plane (tool)
cectonóx- vti to plane s.t.
plank
se'íbes ni board, plank
plant
ciinéyei- vai to plant, sow
bisí'i'oot na plant
ciinén- vii to plant s.t.
plaster
hokóxesnouyóó ni plaster
hokóxesnouyéí- vai to plaster, put plaster on
plate
besnóoó ni 1) wooden vessel such as pan or plate, 2) extended to dishes or tableware not made from wood
se'nóoó ni plate
play
cóú'utii- vai 1) to bother something or someone, 2) to play with something casually
hiiníkotiih- vta 1) to play with s.o., 2) to tease or trick s.o.
hiiníkotíí- vai to play
níibei'eikúú3ei- vai to play a wind instrument, e.g. a flute
sei'kuu3éí- vai to play cards
hiiníkotiib- vta to play with s.o.
playing card
sei'kuu3óó ni playing card
please
kookóú'unéíhii particle special address form used in prayers, 'please, please let it be'
pledge
hiihkohóó'oo- vai to take an oath, make a pledge, swear
seyeineeceenóhoe- vai to pledge something in a traditional manner
pledger
yoohúúhuu na pledger, e.g. of a dance
yonoohút na pledger, e.g. of a dance
nookuhisei na the pledger of the woman's Buffalo dance
Pleiades
beenokú3i' na Pleiades
Pleiades
neniisootoxu3i' heneeceeno' na Pleiades
plentiful
nii3óyeisóó- vii to be plentiful
nii3óyeiseihí- vai to be plentiful
nii3óyeiteihí- vai to be plentiful
pliable
3o'eiínoo- vii to be pliable
pliers
tooyo'óénoo' ni pliers
plover
kóokóosóóneet na ?mountain plover
plow
3ó'o'wúúci3óo ni plow
3ó'o'wuucí3ei- vai to plow
pluck
ko'ún- vti to pull s.t. out, pluck s.t. out
ko'ún- vti to pluck s.t., pull s.t. off
ko'ookuunen- vta to pluck out s.o.'s feathers
ko'ounín- vta to pluck s.o. (anim. obj.)
plug
hokohóe ni 1) cover, 2) lid, 3) plug
plum
beesíb ni 1) plum, 2) can be extended to include other large-seeded fruit such as peaches and apricots
plume
bíií na feather, plume
nóókookuu 1) white plume, 2) white mouse
bííxonoo na plume
plump
co'oxóee- vai to be plump
pneumonia
xookówobeihíít ni pneumonia
xookowobéíhi- vai to have pneumonia
pocket
nísiyoono3óo ni pocket
pocketbook
niisbéí'ici3eiyóó ni pocketbook, purse
pocketknife
coo'óótoo'únoo'oo' wooxé ni pocketknife
pointed
3ouu- pv cone-shaped, pointed
3ouúyoo- vii to be cone-shaped, pointed
3ouuyéíhi- vai to be cone-shaped, pointed
toxu'éíhi- vai 1) to be pointed, 2) to be sharp
toxu'óó- vii to be pointed, sharp
pointy
3í'e'éí- vii to be pointy (e.g. a mountain, rock or land formation)
3í'e'eííte- vii to be pointy, there are protuberances (e.g. peaks on a mountain range or a rock formation)
poison ivy
nihóúsoo3eihíího ni poison ivy
nih'óúsoo3eihíího' poison ivy, scientific name Toxicodendron rydbergii
poison
nohkuuxonó3oó ni poison
nohkuuxonóh- vta to poison s.o.
poke
notoo'óh- vta to poke around for something (animate object) using an instrument (e.g. a stick, a fork)
poke
notoo'óh- vti to poke around for something using an instrument (e.g. a stick, a fork)
poker
noo'oekúú3oot ni poker (in cards)
3oo'oo'ohóe ni poker (tool)
héétoo'ohóe ni poker (tool)
koxukoo'ohóe ni poker (tool)
polar bear
nóókox na 1) white bear, 2) polar bear
pole strap
nóho'eyici3óo ni pole strap (of a harness)
pole
hokóóx na tepee pole
police
touku3éíhii na police officer
polite
teteesih- vta to treat s.o. in a friendly manner, treat s.o. politely
pond
coo'oowúse' ni pond
pony
teitóóx na Shetland pony
poor
hetebínouhúúni- vai 1) to be pitiful, 2) to be feeble, 3) to be poor
hetebínouhuunóó- vii 1) to be in poor condition , 2) to be deteriorating
pop
niscih'ebíít ni a sweet beverage (e.g. lemonade or pop)
ko'étee- vii to pop, make a popping sound
poplar
koo'einkóehit na poplar
Popo Agie
Boo'oowú' ni 1) town of Hudson, WY, 2) Popo Agie creek
popular
hii'éíhi- vai to be popular
porch
toukóóhowoot ni 1) lean-to, 2) porch, 3) umbrella
Porcupine Child
houusoo na Porcupine Child
porcupine
hooníno' na 1) quill, 2) ?porcupine
houtíhii ni 1) porcupine tail, 2) comb made from porcupine quills
hoo na porcupine
pork
nih'óó3ouwoxuunoséíno' ni pork
possess
níi3iní- vii 1) to be held, possessed, 2) to be available, at one's disposal
nííhenéíhi- vai to own something, possess something
nii3ín- vta to keep s.o., possess s.o., hold s.o.
nii3ín- vti to keep s.t., possess s.t.
níí3nowóó- vai to permanently possess something for oneself
hííyoo3nii3ín- vti to possess s.t. cleanly
post
3í'ookuu3óó ni fence post
postpone
wo'obén- vti 1) to move s.t., 2) to postpone s.t.
pot
sii'ohwó'oyeinooó ni pot
potato
cee'éé' ni 1) spherical root such as a turnip or potato, also takes preverbs to form neologisms for any spherical fruit or vegetable, 2) Indian breadroot, scientific name Pediomelum esculentum, 3) lemon scurfpea, scientific name Psoralidium lanceolatum
potential
ni'- pv potential, able to
héíh- pv potential, could have, would have
héí- pv potential, could happen, could occur
pouch
touse3óo ni pouch or bag for tobacco, pipe, porcupine quills, etc.
pound
3o'óh- vti to pound s.t., shatter s.t.
3o'óhcei- vai to pound meat, pound jerky
pour
kouskuutii- vai 1) to pour something, 2) to spill something
híítoo'oo- vai to come 'pouring' (i.e. in large numbers, rapidly)
hiitóón- vti to pour s.t.
híítookúútii- vai to pour something rapidly
powder horn
kokuyoono3oot ni 1) powder horn, 2) bullet pouch
Powder River
ce'í3eeniicííhehe' placename Powder River, WY
powder
konoho'ú3oó ni powder
power
nó'otéíhi- vai 1) to be tough, mean, 2) to have power
wóxu' ni 1) medicine, 2) spiritual or ceremonial power or authority
niihénehéí3it- vti to own some power or skill which was given by a superhuman source
woxú'oo3- vta to grant s.o. special power or authority, either temporary or permanent, so that they can accomplish some task or ceremonial duty
nó'o3ehéít- vti to have a lot of superhuman power
powerful
no'otéíhi- vai to be powerful
prairie dog
coo3óni' na prairie dog
prairie
hí3o'owúú' ni 1) prairie, 2) plain
pray
bee3h- vta to bless s.o., pray for s.o. to be successful
níísih- vta to bless s.o., pray over s.o.
hówoo'oo- vai to pray, worship
biibí3ehííhii na person who prays
hówooyéítoo- vai to engage in prayer for oneself
biibi3ehí- vai to pray
hówooyéíti- vai to pray (especially in a ritual traditional way involving crying and pleading)
prayer
hówoo'óót ni worship, prayer, act of worshipping or praying
howooyéítiit ni prayer
biibí3ehiit ni prayer
precipice
hoxotóóno' ni cliff, precipice
pregnant
coonéíhi- vai to be pregnant
prepare
bii3béé- vai to cook, prepare food
néenóú'u- vai to get ready for something, prepare for something
néenóú'uh- vta to prepare s.o., get s.o. ready
neenout- vti to prepare for s.t., get ready for s.t.
neenouhúútonéíhiinóó' vii a thing has been prepared for someone to use
néenóootiini' vii things have been prepared, are being prepared
hiise'énou'útii- vai to get something ready, prepare something
hiise'énou'uh- vta to prepare someone (animate object)
neenóútii- vai to prepare something
present
héntoo- vai 1) to be present, 2) be in a particular place, be located somewhere
nééceenóhoó ni gift
héntóu- vii to be located here, to be present
president
niinooxúwut 1) government, 2) person in a position of government leadership such as a governor or president
pretend
bei' particle suppose that ..., "let's pretend that ..."
nénesnouúsee- vai to pretend to go outside
pretty
hi3éíhi- vai 1) to be good, 2) to be good looking, pretty
bébeenéíhi- vai to be beautiful, pretty
hi3ówoonéíhi- vai to be good-looking, attractive, pretty
price
hee3oúh'u' ni price
prickly currant
hiwóxuuyéino' ni gooseberries, prickly currants, scientific name Ribes lacustre
prickly
tootoxu'óó- vii to be prickly
tootoxu'éíhi- vai to be prickly
priest
béteennih'óó3oo na minister, priest, preacher, missionary
heenínouhut na 1) Catholic priest, 2) sometimes extended to a Catholic person in general
prison
tóúkuhúúno'oowú' ni jail, penitentiary, prison
prisoner
toukuhúúhuu na prisoner
privy
biihííno'oowú' ni bathroom, privy
privy
niitkooneetóótiini' ni privy, toilet
probably
nooxéíhi' adv 1) maybe, perhaps, 2) probably
proceed
neecísee- vai to go on along, move along, proceed
cebíseenoo- vii to proceed, happen, go on
procure
cééstoo- vai to procure or obtain something, buy something (typically for oneself)
cééston- vta to procure or obtain something for s.o., buy something for s.o.
céésih- vta to procure or obtain s.o. (anim. obj., e.g. a horse)
prod
heeto'ón- vta to prod s.o.
pronghorn antelope
nisíce na 1) antelope, pronhorn antelope, 2) water strider
pronoun
neneení3i' pronoun they, third person plural pronoun
nenéénit pronoun he, she, third person pronoun
nééni- vai stem for a verb that forms pronouns
proper
xóuuwúnihíí- vai to speak in a straight, proper, truthful way
bebíí3enéíhi- vai to have been corrected, made proper
xóuuwutoo- vai to act straight, act properly
xóuuwúseenóó- vii to proceed in a straight or proper way
bebíisííhi' adv properly, correctly
ceceecó'ohú- vai to be ceremonially proper
ceceecó'ohuunííni- vii to be ceremonially proper
ceceecó'ohú- vii to be ceremonially proper
properly
hííyoo3ííhi' adv 1) cleanly, 2) properly, respectfully
bebíis- pv properly, correctly
protect
hééteniih- vta 1) to protect s.o., 2) to take care of s.o., 3) to watch over s.o.
protuberance
3i'óó' vii there is a protuberance, mountain, pinnacle
provide
cééstowuun- vta to provide for s.o.
provoke
heswóoo3ih- vta 1) to offend s.o., 2) to provoke s.o.
prune
wo'teenbeesíb ni prune
pubic hair
biisíyoo ni pubic hair of a man
bíísohoo ni pubic hair (woman's)
puddle
coo'óowúse' ni 1) body of water, 2) puddle
pull down
cenííkuu3- vta to pull s.o. down
pull out
koyikuutii- vai to pull something out of someplace, free something
ko'ún- vti to pull s.t. out, pluck s.t. out
pull
ko'ún- vti to pluck s.t., pull s.t. off
tei'iniihí- vai to pull
hiincó'ooceíhcehí- vai to pull back and forth rapidly on a rope or rope-like object
nih'ooceiin- vta to pull on s.o.
hetóocéín- vti to pull out a rope or rope-like object
ko'ookúteen- vta to pull out s.o.'s tooth
ko'óóneen- vta to pull s.o. off
héé3ten- vta to pull s.o. toward oneself
cenííkuutii- vai to pull something down
héikóó3en- vti to pull up the side (of a tipi)
pulsate
ko'ohúúni- vii to throb, pulsate
pulse
ko'ohúú- vai to pulse, throb
ko'ohúú ni pulse
pump
nisoníciitoow- vta to inflate s.o., pump s.o. up (animate object, e.g. a tire)
nisoníciitóó3oó ni pump
ciitóó3oó ni tire pump
pumpkin
cebéíhko' na pumpkin
punch
to'ob- vta to hit s.o., punch s.o., strike s.o.
puncture
tono'óh- vta to puncture s.o.
tono'óh- vti to puncture s.t.
pungent desert parsley
nii'éétee' ni a plant known as bear root, biscuit root, pungent desert parsley or consumption plant, scientific name Lomatium dissectum, described by Kroeber as "a greasy, carrot-like root" (TA:32)
pupa
bííseenii3óóteeyoo ni 1) chrysalis , 2) pupa
pupil
neyei3éíhii na 1) pupil, student, 2) reader, literate person
hinéntehe na pupil (of the eye)
puppy
he3ebiisoo na puppy
purchase
céne3eih- vta 1) to knock s.o. down or off someplace, 2) to purchase s.o.
céne3éíh- vti 1) to knock s.t. down or off someplace, 2) to purchase s.t.
hotóónoot- vti to buy s.t., purchase s.t.
pure
hiiyootéénebéíhi- vai to be known to be clean or pure, be thought of as clean or pure
hííyoo3ítii- vai to keep something clean and pure
hiiyoot- pv 1) pure, 2) clean
hiiyóótoowu' vii (water) to be pure
purse
niisbéí'ici3eiyóó ni pocketbook, purse
pus
ben ni pus
pus
benííni- vii to be full of pus
push
he3kúu3- vta ?to pull s.o. towards oneself
hee3kúú3- vta to push s.o.
hééten- vta to push s.o.
hée3kúútii- vai to push something away
put back
ce'3éín- vti to put s.t. back inside something, e.g. a container
ce'3einowuun- vta to put something back inside a container for s.o.
put in
3ei'ikuu3ee- vai put something inside something else
put on
cíí3ibii- vai to put on a clothes
ciitotó'nii- vai to put on a hat
ciitotoohoe- vai to put on pants
ciito'óhnii- vai to put on shoes
ciitosóúhuníí- vai to put on socks
ciitó'- vti to put s.t. on
put one's head inside
3einé'eini- vai to put one's head inside a place or area
put out a fire
nío'óótonéé- vai to put out a fire well, put out a fire completely
put out
hóótonee- vai to put out a fire
put up a lodge
yóóhu- vai to put up a ceremonial lodge, especially Sun Dance
put up
heeteinih- vta to put s.o. up overnight
put
ciinén- vti 1) to lay s.t. down, put s.t. down, 2) to put a bad experience behind one
híísibén- vta 1) to lay s.o. down, put s.o. down, 2) to put s.o. to bed
3i'ookuutii- vai to stand something up, set something in an upright position
ciiníhi- vii to be placed down, laid down
cíínen- vta 1) to put s.o. down, 2) release s.o., let s.o. loose
teesciinén- vti to put s.t. down on top of something
teexciinén- vti to put s.t. down on top of something

Q

quail
cénee na grouse, sage grouse
noo'oheicénee na quail
cénee na quail
cénoho' na quail
Quaker
soo'to'onéét na Quaker
quaking aspen
bíiít ni 1) quaking aspen, scientific name Populus tremuloides, 2) elms, scientific name Ulmus spp.?
quarrel
cehyootíít ni quarrel
cehyoootí- vai to quarrel
cehyoootííb- vta to quarrel with s.o.
quarry
hiinoo'ei3oó quarry (animal being hunted)
hoh'onóókeeniititenéíht ni quarry (source of stone)
quarter
cebeenííhi' quarter
queen
neecéései na queen
queer
cee'ínoyoo- vii to be strange, queer, weird
question
noton- vta to ask s.o., ask s.o. a question
koo- proclitic indicates a yes/no question
nottówoó ni question
queue
nii3niiteiyeekúú- vai to stand in a line, queue
quick
noxnonéíhi- vai to be quick
quickly
nóxohu- vii to be rapid, occur quickly
nóxohoe- pv quickly, rapidly
nóxhoenííhi' adv quickly, rapidly
níhi'- pv quickly
céece3ó'oh particle quickly, before you know it
quicksand
neenkouté' ni quicksand
quiet
téiitooyóó- vii to be calm, still, quiet
teiitoonéíhi- vai 1) to be quiet, 2) to sit still, 3) to be well behaved
téiitoonéíhi- vai to be quiet, calm, still
teiitooyóó- vii to be quiet
quietly
téiitoonííhi' adv quietly, in a quiet way
quill
hooníno' na 1) quill, 2) ?porcupine
beniiihí' adv quilled, decorated with quill work
niibiii- vai to do quill work
quilt
cechóu ni quilt, quilted blanket
nitootoukuto'óh- vti to quilt s.t.
quirt
niskohóe ni switch, whip, quirt
quit
ciintíí- vai to quit
quiver
ciitó3oo ni 1) quiver, 2) gun case
quotation
ciitou3ooko3inihíít ni quotation

R

Rabbit Lodge
nookuhoowú' ni Rabbit Lodge
rabbit
nóókohwóót ni rabbit dance
nóóku na 1) cottontail rabbit, or used for rabbits generally, 2) hare
nowootooku na rabbit
nookúhsoo na young rabbit
rabbitbrush
nooku'úúsii ni rabbitbrush, scientific name Chrysothamnus spp.
raccoon
tékooninéíhii na raccoon
téetékooninéíhii na raccoon
race horse
nonóúhtiinóóx na race horse
race
nonóúti- vai to race
nonóúhetiib- vta to race against s.o.
nonoutííb- vta to race s.o.
nonóúheti- vai to race (with each other)
racehorse
nonoutiinóóx na racehorse
racer
niixooseiht na racer snake
rack
hóú3oó ni rack, shelf
radio
céi3iwooó na 1) spirit, 2) (pl.) radio
rag
nih'oo3ooyóu ni rag
ragweed
wó'teenóókhoosé' ni possibly ragweed, scientific name Ambrosia psilostachya
raid
bisííten- vti 1) to attack s.t., 2) to raid s.t.
bisííton- vta to attack s.o., raid s.o.
railroad station
teesihcehéíno'oowú' ni railroad station, train station
railroad
héso'oobooó ni railroad
rain
ceitoosoo' vii rain is approaching
hoosóó- vii to rain
hoosootí- vii to rain
cenoosóó- vii to rain down
nootoosóó- vii to rain heavily
no'otoosóóti- vii to rain heavily
rainbow
noyóót na 1) rainbow, 2) fishhook, fishing gear, 3) ?trap
boh'ooonoyóót na rainbow
rainwater
hoosoonéc ni rainwater
raise
noh'en- vti to lift s.t. by hand, raise s.t. up
héikóó3eni' vii it has the sides raised up
híhcení- vii to be raised up (especially ceremonially)
hihce'éí- vai to raise one's head
nih'ih'oh- vta to raise s.o.
hiisí'i'oot- vta to raise s.o. (a child, an animal)
heenéikóó3en- vti to raise the sides of a tipi
raisin
bííbinoot ni 1) berry, 2) extended to other small roundish fruit such as grape or raisin
biinóh'o ni (pl.) raisins
rake
wonóhnookúteenóó' ni hand rake
hoo'einoxuyóó ni rake
hoo'einoxun- vta to rake s.o. (anim. obj.)
hoo'einoxún- vti to rake s.t.
ramrod
wosohóe 1) ramrod, 2) ?foreman
rancher
wóókeciinén na rancher, cattleman
rancid
woxúse- vii to be bad, decaying (e.g. flesh) rancid, rotten, spoiled
woxoowúse- vii (a liquid, e.g. milk) to be rotten, spoiled, rancid
rank
hecóxookei na 1) a person of small rank or stature, 2) a child, not a grown-up
hecóxookéíhi- vai 1) to be a person of small rank or stature (figuratively), 2) to be a child
rape
hi3kuu3- vta 1) to grab s.o., seize s.o., capture s.o., 2) to rape s.o.
rapid
nóxohu- vii to be rapid, occur quickly
rapidly
nóxohoe- pv quickly, rapidly
nóxhoenííhi' adv quickly, rapidly
rapist
hi3kuu3éíhii na rapist, sexual or violent criminal predator, serial killer
rare
howooyóó- vii to be rare
rasberry
honíí'o na, ni rasberry, scientific name Rubus idaeus
rash
cecii'éíhi- vai to have a rash
rat
heebetookúú na rat
rather
cííno'on- pv fairly, rather, intensifier
ration
hoxóbetíit ni ration
rattle
síísiiy na 1) gourd, 2) rattle (traditionally made of a gourd)
rattlesnake
hiinohcéíneeyoonít na rattlesnake
nohceinééyeihii na rattlesnake
raven
woxúúxonéíhii na raven
raw
besoonobéé- vai to eat raw meat
besooyóó- vii (meat) to be raw
rawhide
ho'úwoonóx ni rawhide bag
ko'eiyóó ni 1) rawhide, 2) moccasin sole
koo'eiyóó ni rawhide (of a buffalo, horse, cow)
razor
kó'neebi'eistíít ni razor
reach
héetéét- vti to reach a location
hitét- vti to reach a place
nó'neetíí- vai to reach a place, get to a place
hitetén- vta to reach s.o.
hitetén- vti to reach s.t.
read
neyéítii- vai 1) to go to school, 2) to learn, 3) to read
neyei3éí- vai 1) to count, 2) to read, 3) to study, go to school, be a student
neyéitíí- vti to read s.t., count s.t.
ready
teekó'- vti 1) to fit s.t. (e.g. clothes), 2) to be ready or suited for s.t. (e.g. a power)
neenout- vti to prepare for s.t., get ready for s.t.
hiise'énou'ú- vai to be ready
hiise'énoúúton- vta to be ready for s.o.
néenóuuton- vta to be ready for s.o.
real
hí3oowúúhu' adv in a real or true manner
hee3neenéé- vii to be real
hee3neenééni- vai to be real
really
sii- proclitic intensifier, really, a lot, very
sii- pv very, really
hóuunée- pv really, extremely, the most
rear
xóó'oekúú'oo- vai 1) to kneel, 2) (a horse) ?to rear
níicíbe' particle in back, especially in the back of the camp, in the rear
níicibísee- vai to walk to the back, walk to the rear
xóekuu'oo- vai (a horse) to rear
hitooxúúhu' adv in the rear
hitooxe'einííhi' adv in the rear
hisóóne' ni rear end
reason
kookón particle 1) for no reason, without a clear reason, just for any reason, 2) just anything
kon- proclitic for no reason, for just any reason
kookuyón particle for no reason, without care or discernment
rebuke
totoub- vta 1) to dissuade s.o., to talk s.o. out of something, 2) to rebuke s.o., scold s.o., correct s.o.
recall
woonée'ín- vti to recall s.t., remember s.t. after having forgotten
receive a power
hitétehéí3tonéíhi- vai to have been given a power from superman sources
hitétehéí3it- vti to receive a power or skill as a blessing from superhuman sources
nó'otehéí3it- vti to receive a lot of power (via a gift from superhuman sources)
receive
hitétehii3íton- vta to receive s.o. (anim. obj.) as a gift
hitétehii3ít- vti to receive s.t. as a gift
hitéteihi- vai to receive something
recently
hoowkóú3iihi' particle recently
woonííhi' particle recently
reckless
hésiinootéíhi- vai 1) to be fast, have fast reflexes, 2) to be reckless
recognition
néhtiihetíít ni recognition, recognizing one another
recognize
nehtiih- vta to recognize s.o., know who s.o. is
néhtiitii- vai to recognize something
néhtowóót- vti to recognize the sound of s.t.
recognized
néhtiihí- vii to be known, recognized, familiar
recoil
nito'oxówoonoo- vii to recoil (e.g. a gun)
ni3i'eséí'oo- vai to recoil (e.g. a snake)
record
niibeiikúú3oo ni something that makes music or sound, e.g. an organ (musical instrument), phonograph record, audio tape, cd, tape player, cd player, etc.
recover
biscitíí- vai 1) to dig up, uncover, 2) to recover or revive something
hinentéení- vai 1) to recover, feel well again, 2) to be back where one belongs
hinentééni- vai to recover
rectify
ni'ítii- vai to rectify something, make something right
red birch
nííyoo'óé ni red-bush, red birch, mountain birch, water birch, scientific name Betula fontinalis
red hot
bei'icítee- vii to be red hot
be'exoh'ú- vai to be red hot
béí'ici3éíhi- vai to be red hot
red
bé'en- vta to paint s.o. red
bo'xúsin- vta to paint s.o. red ceremonially
béí'oo'oee3- vti to paint s.t. red
bo'óúu'éí'oo- vai 1) to turn red, 2) to blush
be'- pv red
béí'iní- vii to be painted red
béí'inéíhi- vai to be painted red ceremonially
be'éé- vii to be red
be'éíhi- vai to be red
be'ééni- vii to be red
be'e3oo'óó- vii to glow red
béí'ini- vai to have been painted red ceremonially
bé'en- vti to make s.t. red
béí'i'ei- vai to paint oneself red
be'ínoo'óó- vii to turn red
redhead
bee'éé'eit na redhead
red-tailed hawk
níhoono3oyéíhii na red-tailed hawk
reed
yéyeinoxúús ni reed, otter weed
reel
níhi'kóohúúnoo'oo- vai to reel, be suddenly running, as when landing from flight
refrigerator
toyoowóó3oo ni icebox, refrigerator
toyóówusé3oo ni icebox, refrigerator
regard
híí3eenebéíhi- vai how someone was thought of, regarded
regularly
héénoo particle 1) regularly, generally, as a rule, 2) purposefully, on purpose
regulation
hooxuwúút ni 1) law, 2) rule, 3) regulation
rein
toyooceiyóoóno ni 1) rein, 2) a long scarf worn during the Dog Lodge ceremony
reinforce
tei'tíí- vai to reinforce something
reject
ciino'óúb- vta to reject s.o.
rejoice
honowu3ehí- vai to rejoice
rekindle
koxku3ééyei- vai to rekindle a fire
relate
hoo3ítoon- vta to tell s.o. a story, tell s.o about something
related
hinííto'éíbetí- vai to be related to one another, treat one another as if related
hiniito'éíb- vta to be related to s.o.
relationship
hiniito'éíbetí- vai to unite in a long stable relationship, establish a relationship
release
cíínen- vta 1) to put s.o. down, 2) release s.o., let s.o. loose
cíínkuu3- vta to release s.o., to let s.o. go, let s.o. loose
reliable
hííxonoh'oehííni- vai 1) to be mature, grown up, 2) to be reliable, dependable
religion
beyoowú'u ni (pl.) Arapaho religious and ceremonial life, especially ceremonial dances such as the Sun Dance and dances of each of the lodges
rely
he'eeneb- vta to rely on s.o.
remain
nííhonéíhi- vai to be somewhere a long time, especially when this requires effort or strain
né'eh'éntoo- vai to remain someplace
remediate
hííneyó'otii- vai to remediate a situation, make things better
remember
toyóú'uuwu- vai to remember a lesson, learn something and keep it in mind
he'ín- vti 1) to know s.t., understand s.t., 2) to keep s.t. in mind, remember s.t.
3óó3eeneb- vta 1) to remember s.o., 2) to think about s.o.
3óó3eenéét- vti 1) to remember s.t., 2) to think about s.t.
3onooxu3ecóó- vai to remember
3onoo3eenów- vta to remember s.o.
3onóó3eeneb- vta to remember s.o.
reminisce
cé'no'ú3ecóót- vti to think back on s.t., reminisce about s.t.
remote
nooó' particle in a remote place
nooo'úsee- vai to go to a remote place
remove
wotí'esóó- vii to be removed
wotí'etóótiini- vii to be taken away, removed
ko'óh- vti to remove s.t. from something else
repair
bebíistíí- vai 1) to fix something, repair something, 2) to do something correctly
bebíi3en- vta to fix up or repair s.o.
bebíi3en- vti to fix up or repair s.t.
bebíisih- vta 1) to repair s.o. (animate obj.), 2) make s.o. right again, as in resting a tired horse
repeat
ce'néé'eesínihíí- vai to repeat oneself
ce'inihíí- vai to repeat something (verbally)
replace
hokootén- vta to replace s.o.
hokootén- vti to replace s.t.
request
níiit- vti to request s.t.
níiitowuun- vta to request something from s.o.
resemble
hí3on- vta to resemble s.o., look like s.o.
resent
héseinéét- vti 1) to hate s.t., 2) to resent s.t.
héseineb- vta to hate s.o., resent s.o.
reservoir
hokóuyóo ni reservoir
reside
hiine'étii- vai to live, reside
resin
see3céí ni pine pitch, pine resin, pine sap
resist
hóó3onéíhi- vai 1) to triumph over a challenge, resist successfully, 2) to be undefeatable
hóó3onih- vta to resist s.o., defeat s.o.
respect
niibobóóteenebéíht na a respected person
bobóóteenebéíhi- vai to be respected
bobooteenów- vta to respect s.o.
bobooteenéét- vti to respect s.t.
hookónoonééneb- vta to think of s.o. respectfully
respected
hookónooyóó- vii to be sacred, respected
respectful
hookónoonííhi' adv in a respectful or sacred manner
hookónoono'óó- vai to act consistently respectful
hookónoontoo- vai to do something in a respectful way
hookónooníseenóó- vii to occur in a respectful way
hookónooní3ecoo- vai to think in a respectful way
respectfully
hííyoo3ííhi' adv 1) cleanly, 2) properly, respectfully
hookónoonínihíít- vti to say or mention s.t. respectfully
respond
hooxóénihíí3- vta 1) to answer s.o., 2) to respond to s.o.
hooxóénihíí- vai to answer, respond
response
hóóxohóenííhi' adv in return, in response, in exchange
hóóxee- pv in exchange, in response, in return
rest
hoo3óó'o' na 1) (plural) others, 2) (plural) the rest, 3) (plural) some
toyeinou'óó- vai to rest
toyéinóús(ine)- vai to rest
restless
heneebínoo'óó- vai 1) to be frustrated, 2) to be restless
restroom
céénokuhcehéíno'oowú' ni outhouse, bathroom, restroom
retain
ne'ehnii3ín- vta to retain s.o.
ne'ehnii3ín- vti to retain s.t.
retaliate
hooxohéénowoo- vai to retaliate
hooxohéén- vta to retaliate against s.o.
retch
xo'ú3kuu3- vta to gag s.o., to cause s.o. to retch
return
hóóxee- pv in exchange, in response, in return
hóóxohóenííhi' adv in return, in response, in exchange
ce'íhcehí- vai to return quickly, run back
ce'no'uh'ohú- vai to return (by airplane), fly back (by airplane)
ce'no'óú'oo- vai to return (by boat), come back (by boat)
ce'no'okóóhu- vai to return (by car)
ce'no'uukohéí- vai to return (by horse), ride back (on horseback)
cé'no'úsee- vai to return by walking
ce'no'úsee- vai to return (on foot)
ce'no'oxoh- vta to return s.o. (anim. obj.)
ce'no'oxoton- vta to return something to s.o.
returning
co' pv again, back, returning
ce' pv again, back, returning
reverse
hosei3ííhi' adv in reverse
hosei3- pv reverse
hosei3kóóhu- vai to run in reverse
revive
heecéhih- vta to revive s.o.
revolver
tó'oo' ni pistol, revolver
rheumatism
sesiinóókowuut ni rheumatism
rib
híixóon ni hump ribs of the buffalo
híícoo ni rib
rice
hi'iisóó na 1) maggot, 2) (pl.) rice
rich
bio'nó'oo- vai to be rich, wealthy
ride
ce3kóóhuuhéí- vai to ride away
ride around
hiinííkohéí- vai to ride around aimlessly
ride into
cei3kohéí- vai to ride into something, such as a patch of forest
ride
noo'óeenííkohéí- vai to ride around s.t., encircle s.t.
nííteiniikohéí- vai to ride in single file
cesísiikohéí- vai 1) to begin riding, 2) to begin to ride away
néyeito'éí- vai to ride a bronco, as in a rodeo
téii'ííkohéí- vai to ride a horse calmly or quietly
noo'óeekóókuuhéí- vai to ride around a place
hitooxúúkohéí- vai to ride behind, ride last
cebiikohéí- vai to ride by
teexóku- vai to ride (e.g. a horse or in a vehicle)
teexó- vai to ride (e.g. in a vehicle)
nó'oo'kóóhuuhéí- vai to ride far away, way out there
cíísiikohéí- vai to ride far, ride a long ways
níhi'kóóhuuhéí- vai to ride fast on a horse
niitókuuw- vta to ride with s.o.
ridge
3o3outé' ni 1) horizon, 2) on the ridge
3o3óuuteinííhi' adv ridge-like, characterized by ridges
cowoúúte- vii there is a ridge
3o3óuute'éíni' vii there is a ridge there
ridged
3o3óuutei- pv ridged, ridge-like
riding horse
teexokúút na saddle horse, riding horse
rifle
niikóonííteení' ni a breech-loading rifle
right then
wó'o'oto' particle right then, just at the right time
right there
wó'éii3ów particle 1) just right, 2) right there
right
hi3oobéé- vii 1) to be correct, right, 2) to be true
bebíisih- vta 1) to repair s.o. (animate obj.), 2) make s.o. right again, as in resting a tired horse
hi3eti- vii 1) to be good, 2) to be right
beeyóó particle 1) perfect, just right, right on!, 2) directly
tenéii'ííhi' adv just right, right on, exactly
cebíísihihiiteenííhi' adv on the right side
cebíís ni right side
cebiisííteenííhi' adv the right side, using the right side
nénii3é- vii to be just right, exactly on target
cebíísihiiteenííhi' adv on the right side
rind
notóyeic ni 1) hide, 2) rind (e.g. of an apple)
ring
nííxoonee3éé3oo ni ring (a plain band)
nohcéíneeyei- vai to ring (e.g. a bell)
nohceinéén- vti to ring s.t. (e.g. a bell)
nohcéínee- vai to ring something (e.g. a bell)
nohceinóóni- vii to ring
ripe
hiisétee- vii 1) to be cooked, 2) to be ripe
hiiséteesi- vai 1) to be cooked, 2) to be ripe
rise
3owo3íí- vai to rise, get up (from a lying position)
bisísee- vai 1) to appear, come in to view, 2) (the sun) to rise
kóhei- vai to rise, get up (from a sitting position)
hihco'óó- vii to rise, go up
hihco'óó- vai to rise, go up
ritual
betééntoo- vai to do sacred things, to engage in a ritual, to worship
niistoowóohúút ni a performance of a ceremony or ritual
ciibénoo'óó- vai to perform a ceremony or ritual
river
no'óéteinííhi' adv at the river, by the river
niicííhehe' ni little river
niicíí ni river
Riverton
Hóóxonó'oo placename Riverton, WY
roach
bee'étee' ni roach (hair decoration worn by dancers)
road
towóoxéisé' vii 1) something is marked by breaking, a route or road has been made by breaking things (as in railroad construction), 2) a border is marked
bóoó ni 1) road, trail, 2) milky way
roar
3oxoohówu- vai to growl, roar, make a roaring noise
no'óteinéése- vii to make a roaring noise (e.g. water)
roast
3eeyocóó3- vta to roast s.o. (anim. obj.)
3eeyocóót- vti to roast s.t.
3eeyocéí- vai to roast something
robe
hóu ni blanket, robe
biixóu ni buffalo cow robe
neneesootoxei'i ni buffalo robe with eight lines of ornamentation
beeteetósoo'uht ni buffalo robe with one hundred lines of ornamentation
neneesoo'ouht ni buffalo robe with twenty lines of ornamentation
hohookeenou ni robe used in the Crazy Lodge dance
robin
he3césee na robin
robust
hiisooowú- vai to be robust, stocky
Rock Men
Hoho'nookowuunen na member of one of the five 'sub-tribes' said by Curtis to have been absorbed into the Northern and Southern Arapaho
rock
hoho'nóókee na rock, stone
sííyon ni 1) rocks, 2) a rocky area, 3) (pl.) pebbles, sand, gravel
rod
bes ni 1) wood, piece of wood, 2) stick, rod
roll
hoowtéciitoo- vai to roll down
técitoo- vai to roll over
tecén- vti to roll s.t. (e.g. a cigarette)
room
ce'ex'oowú' ni room (in a building)
root
té3oucénii ni a sweet edible root
3éíci' ni root
hi3éíciibi- vai to have roots
rope
séénook ni 1) rope, lariat, 2) a long scarf worn in the Dog Lodge ceremony
híte'éíci3- vta to put a rope around an animal's head
híte'éíci3éí- vai to put a rope around an animal's head
ciite'eikúú3- vta to rope s.o.
ciite'eikúú3ei- vai to rope something, be roping
rope-like
heyoocéíhi- vai to be rope-like, snake-like
rose
yeiníís ni wood's rose bush, scientific name Rosa woodsii (bush)
bé'e'éí ni wood's rose flowers, possibly also other rose flowers, scientific name Rosa woodsii
rot
3o'oxousi- vii to be decaying (e.g. a tree)
rotate
noo'één- vta to rotate s.o. (anim. obj.)
noo'één- vti to rotate s.t.
rotten
woxúse- vii to be bad, decaying (e.g. flesh) rancid, rotten, spoiled
hoxúse- vii to be decaying (e.g. meat), rotten
woxoowúse- vii (a liquid, e.g. milk) to be rotten, spoiled, rancid
rough
3e3i'oowu' vii the water is rough, waves are high or rough
woowoyóó- vii to be rough
hoo'oonéíhi- vai to be rough
roughly
bebenéh particle about, approximately, roughly
round up
hoo'éisó'onéíhi- vai to be rounded up
hiisó'o'ei- vai to round up horses
hoo'eisó'ei- vai to round up livestock
hiisó'on- vta to round up someone (animate object)
round
ko'einóó- vii to be circular, round
kóutohséinohwóót ni round dance
ko'éí- pv round, circular
ce'éé- vii to be approximately round, approximately spherical
ceteyóó- vii to be round, spherical
ceteyéíhi- vai to be round, spherical
roundup
hoo'eisó'oeet ni roundup
rouse
howóten- vta to rouse s.o., wake s.o. up
row
cowouhéí- vai to row a boat
niitéiyeekúú- vai to stand in a row
niitéiyeekúú- vii to stand in a row, be in a row
rub oneself
kóóntoo- vai to rub oneself ceremonially after smudging
rub
xo'én- vti to apply ointment, rub lotion on
tebéin- vta to rub s.o., massage s.o.
hii3én- vti to rub s.t. on (e.g. lotion, ointment)
rubber band
siikooceiíkuu3oo ni rubber band
rule
hooxuwúút ni 1) law, 2) rule, 3) regulation
héénoo particle 1) regularly, generally, as a rule, 2) purposefully, on purpose
hooxúwuh- vta 1) to order s.o., give s.o. an order, 2) to establish a rule or restriction for s.o. to follow , 3) to sentence s.o., as in a court
hóóxuwúutéé' vii there is a rule (about something), a rule has been made about something
ruler
tokóhoé ni ruler
rump
wokóoó ni-dep rump
run
tókohú- vai to flee, to run away
run around
noo'oece'eekuu- vai run around in circles, like a knot (e.g. a bunch of kids)
noonoo'oekóóhu- vai to run around
run away
nonííkoh- vta 1) to hide from s.o., 2) to run away from s.o.
neyéiskóóhu- vai to run away from one another, separate
cesíhcehí- vai to run away
neyéiskóóhuuhéí- vai to run away from each other
nohkce3kóóhu- vai to run away while carrying something
run back
ce'kóóhu- vai to run back to a place
run down
hoowkóóhu- vai to run down a hill or slope
run in
hoo'éícii3íhcehí- vai to run in to a place as a group, to enter rapidly as a group
3eikóóhu- vai to run while inside a place or area
hítes- vta to come upon s.o., run into s.o., meet s.o. unexpectedly
run out
bee3íse- vii 1) to be worn out, 2) to have run out, be all gone
béetó'oo- vii 1) to be finished, over, done with, 2) to pass away, 3) to run out, disappear
run up
nóh'ohkoohu- vai to run up
run
níhi'kóóhu- vai 1) to run quickly, 2) (a horse) to gallop
noho'úkotii- vai 1) to gallop, 2) to run
hoo'éikóóhu- vai to assemble together, run together
nóótesei'i- vai to flee in fright, to run away in fright
cebínoo'oo- vii (water) to flow by, run by, pass by
cebíhcehí- vai to pass rapidly by, run by
ce'íhcehí- vai to return quickly, run back
neetó'osíbetí- vai to work or run oneself to exhaustion
cebikóóhuuhéí- vai to pass by, when on horseback
hiisííten- vta 1) to catch s.o., grab s.o., seize s.o., 2) to run after s.o.
noo'óeekóóhu- vai 1) to run around a place, 2) to circle around a place
cíi3íhcehí- vai to enter rapidly, to run in to a structure
nóho'úhcéhí- vai to go upwards quickly, run or jump upwards
níhi'kóohúúnoo'oo- vai to reel, be suddenly running, as when landing from flight
césisíhcehí- vai to start running, start moving rapidly, set off rapidly
ce3kóóhu- vai 1) to start running, set off running, 2) to run away
ciiskóóhu- vai 1) to run far, 2) to travel a long distance
héé3ebkóóhu- vai run to there, run over there
ní'ikóóhu- vai to be able to run
néét3oowukóóhu- vai to die of lack of breath due to running
bee3iiscii3íhcehí- vai to have finished running in to a place
wo'wúciiskóóhu- vai to run a little farther (e.g. than the day before)
hiinkóóhu- vai to run around
ce3kóóh- vta to run away from s.o.
ceníikóóhu- vai to run far
hesiikóóhu- vai to run fast
nííhonkóóhu- vai to run for a long time or long distance
ce3íkoh- vta to run from s.o.
cíi3kóóhu- vai to run inside something
nííhenkóóhu- vai to run of one's own accord
kóxo'kóóhu- vai to run slowly
3ebkóóhu- vai to run there
hii3kóóhu- vai to run there
nii3kóóhuub- vta to run together with s.o.
yihkóóhu- vai to run towards some distant place or thing
ceikóóhu- vai to run towards the speaker
noh'ohkóóhu- vai to run up a hill or slope
nóho'kóóhu- vai to run upwards
nóho'níhi'kóóhu- vai to run upwards quickly
3í'ooneekóóhu- vai to run with one's tail up
runner
ho3ío' na a young man who serves as a helper, assistant or runner during a ceremony
runny nose
3i'iinoxuu3oo'óó- vai to have a runny nose
rush
nóhohóúhu- vai 1) to hurry, 2) to be in a rush
hotohine ni (arctic) rush, scientific name Juncus arcticus
rusty
be'íse- vii to be rusty
rye
ciinóuutono ni (pl.) applied to various crops that are planted such as grain (including wheat, rye) or vegetables
wóxhoox hitíhii ni wild rye grass, scientific name Leymus spp.

S

sabina scopulorum
bé'see3 ni Rocky Mountin juniper, scientific name sabina scopulorum
sack
níísiyoo3óó ni sack
Sacred Wheel
hotííbiiwó'o ni a ceremony concerning the Sacred Wheel or the wheel in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming
sacred
bétee- vai 1) to be holy, to habitually act in a holy or sacred way, 2) to have sacred powers
beteen- pv holy, sacred
beteenóó- vii to be holy, sacred
hookónoonííhi' adv in a respectful or sacred manner
béteenííhi' adv in a sacred or holy way
béteeníse- vii to be happening or occuring in a holy way
béteenéíhi- vai to be sacred or holy
béteeneenebéíhi- vai to be thought of in a sacred or holy way, to be considered sacred or holy
béteeneenéét- vti to think about s.t. in a sacred or holy way, to consider s.t. sacred or holy
hookónooyóó- vii to be sacred, respected
betééntoo- vai to do sacred things, to engage in a ritual, to worship
béteenóótin ni sacred song
ceceecéisóho- vii to be done in a sacred way
sad
teenéí'oo- vai 1) to look sad, 2) to frown
teenoku- vai 1) to sit sadly, 2) to be sad, depressed, down
teenéíhi- vai to be sad
saddle blanket
cecihookok ni saddle blanket
saddle horse
teexokúút na saddle horse, riding horse
tééxokuunóóx na saddle horse
saddle pad
hooko'ooxnih'oohoe ni saddle pad filler (made from buffalo hair)
saddle tree
3iito'ooko'oox ni saddle tree
saddle
hooko'óóx ni saddle
safety pin
honxówoo ni safety pin
sage
nii'íbounóókhooseií ni sweet sage, scientific name Artemisia ludoviciana Subsp. ludoviciana
sagebrush
nookhoosé' ni sagebrush, scientific name Artemisia spp.
sail
cówou'oo- vii to float, sail
salamander
koohoyéít na salamander, water dog
saliva
betóo3ét ni-dep saliva
salmon
niibo'ooseinoehit na salmon
saloon
benohéíno'oowú' ni bar, saloon
salt
niicoo'ówu' ni salt
niicoo'ówutii- vai to put salt on something
saltbush
wóxuuhooxbii3híít ni saltbush, scientific name Atriplex canescens, possibly other Atriplex spp.
niico'cutee' ?saltbush, scientific name Chenopodiaceae spp.
salty
niicoo'ówcoo- vii to taste salty
niicoo'ówcei- vai to taste salty
salvage
wóniiwóó3- vta to salvage s.o. (anim. obj.)
wóniiwóót- vti to salvage s.t.
salve
xo'éíyoó ni salve
same
neehiisoo- vii to be identical, matching, the same
Sand Creek
Néiíniicíé placename Sand Creek
sand
nóóbe' ni 1) sand, 2) clay
néií ni sand
sandwich
nii3o3ousé' ni sandwich, hamburger
sandy
noobe'éíni- vii to be sandy
sane
he'inootí- vai to be sane
sap
cei na 1) gum, pitch, resin, 2) sap
Satan
hóócoo na devil, Satan
satisfied
hííxowóót- vti 1) to have enough of s.t., 2) to be satisfied with s.t.
hiixowootéíhi- vai 1) to be satisfied, 2) to have enough
Saturday
hoxóbetiiníísi' ni Saturday
saucer
se'nooonéhe' ni saucer
save
he'neetóúhu- vai to save something for future use
he'néétii- vai to save something for future use
he'neetón- vta to save something for s.o.
saved
híínentééni- vai 1) to be well, cured from an ilness, 2) to be saved
saw
tébes- vta to cut s.o. off, saw s.o. off
saw
tebexónoo ni saw (tool)
tebexónee- vai to be sawing
say enough
néé'eetoxúnihíí- vai to say enough
say
nihíí3- vta to tell s.o., say something to s.o.
héí'tobé'e- vai to tell something, say something
nihíí- vai 1) to say, 2) to guess (as in a handgame)
ciiwoní'inihíítooni- vii it takes a long time to say it, to tell it
bée3ínihii- vai to finish saying something
hee3- vta to say something to s.o.
hii3- vta to say something to s.o.
saying
nihíít ni 1) word, 2) saying, phrase
saying
hei'tówoó ni saying
scalp
bei3éés ni scalp
3iikóne'éís- vta to scalp s.o.
3iikóne'éíkuu3- vta to scalp s.o. quickly or violently
scare
híso'on- vta to spook an animal, scare an animal out of hiding
neih- vta to scare s.o., frighten s.o.
hiso'on- vta to scare s.o., spook s.o. (e.g. an animal)
scared
híít- vti to be afraid of s.t., scared of s.t.
neinoo'óó- vai to be scared
scarf
wo'éín ni 1) necklace, 2) scarf, 3) tie
nííse'eicí ni kerchief, scarf
scatter
héíso'onéíhi- vai to be forced to scatter due to being chased, be chased away and apart
niih'eikóni' vii the tribe is moving apart, the tribe is scattering
nih'eikúútii- vai to scatter
niih'eikóóhu- vai to scatter by running, run and scatter
héísiib- vta to scatter people about, by force or hitting
noh'éísib- vta to scatter s.o. on the ground, leave s.o. scattered about
scattered
níh'einowóótiini' vii something has been split up, something has been divided up among people, scattered among people
school
neyéítii- vai 1) to go to school, 2) to learn, 3) to read
neyei3éíno'oowú' ni school
schoolbus
nihoonotíí ni schoolbus
neyei3einotíí ni schoolbus
scissors
ko'uxónoo ni scissors, shears
scold
níínih'oub- vta to scold s.o.
scorpion
niikookohéi'it bíísee na scorpion
besoone'éínih'óó3oo na scorpion
scout
notíkoní- vai 1) to scout for enemies, 2) to be on the warpath
notkóniinén na 1) scout, 2) warrior
scrape
hoxoxóh- vta to scrape s.o. off (anim. obj.)
hoxoxóh- vti to scrape s.t. off, as in scraping a hide
scraper
hoxoxohoe ni scraper
scraps
nohóóxobee ni leftovers, meat scraps, remains from butchering animals
cesícen- vta to scratch s.o.
kou'ci3- vta to scratch s.o.
cesicén- vti to scratch s.t, e.g. scratch an itch
scream
tóóyeitéé' vii there is screaming, one can hear screaming
tooyeinéétii- vai to be screaming on and on, make screaming or hollering noises
tooyéítoh'- vta to make s.o. scream or holler involuntarily
tooyéít- vti to scream, holler (involuntarily)
tooyéínee- vai to scream, holler (involuntarily, as when in pain)
screen
cih'óéése' ni screen, mesh
screw
nih'otoo'ohóe ni screw
hootoohóé ni screw
níh'ootoo'óh- vti to screw s.t.
scrotum
kósoo ni scrotum
scythe
kó'osohóe ni scythe, sickle
sea
heetec ni 1) large body of water, 2) ocean, sea
seagull
heetécii'éíhii na gull, seagull
search for
notiih- vta to look for s.o., search for s.o.
nótiitii- vti to look for s.t., search for s.t.
notííneenéét- vti to search for new knowledge or ideas
notínihíít- vti to search for the right way to say something, look for a word or means of expression
seat
3í'okuutóo ni seat
second
niisí'owóó- vii to be the second time or the second one
secret
hííbineen- vai to be secret
secretary
wo3onóheihii na secretary, stenographer
secretly
hííbinee- pv secretly
hííbineenííhi' adv secretly
see
nesookú- vai to see well, have good eyesight
hitétookú'oo- vai to manage to see something, get a glimse of something
néenóóhob- vta to keep seeing or looking at s.o.
noohówootííhi' adv by seeing, by watching
bíse'eikóóhu- vai to briefly stick one's head up to see something
nóuunóóhob- vta to go outside to see s.o.
noohób- vta to see s.o.
noohoot- vti to see s.t.
niihénoohóót- vti to see s.t. for oneself
noohóó3ei- vai to see, see things
seed
3oox ni seed
seem
bééyei3óót- pv it seems that, it appears that
wootíí particle it's like, it seems that, as if
seize
no3- vta to fetch s.o., seize or grab s.o.
hi3kuu3- vta 1) to grab s.o., seize s.o., capture s.o., 2) to rape s.o.
hiisííten- vta 1) to catch s.o., grab s.o., seize s.o., 2) to run after s.o.
hiisíiténowoo- vai to grab, get, or seize something for oneself
hiisíítenéíhi- vai to have been seized or caught
seizure
wowouunoo'óó- vai to have a seizure
seldom
heenee'ííhi' adv 1) now and then, from time to time, 2) seldom, occasionally
select
hééneyéixóhei- vai to choose, select
selfish
ciiko'ootéíhi- vai to be selfish, stingy
sell
hii'otooneenóón- vta to sell s.o. (anim. obj.)
seller
hotóóneihii na merchant, seller
senile
hoheisííni- vai 1) to be foolish, be crazy, 2) to be senile
hohéis na 1) crazy person, foolish person, 2) senile person
sentence
hooxúwuh- vta 1) to order s.o., give s.o. an order, 2) to establish a rule or restriction for s.o. to follow , 3) to sentence s.o., as in a court
sentry
hoonoyoohóó3eihii na sentry
separate
neyéiskóóhu- vai to run away from one another, separate
neyéisísee- vai to walk away from one another, separate
cei'ísoo' vii 1) to be separate, set apart, 2) to be different
separated
neyeiséé- vai to be separated, as in husband and wife
ciiniisi- vai to be separated from one's husband
ciiniiniiní- vai to be separated from one's wife
separating
neyéisííhi' adv separating, going opposite ways
September
niihóónkoo' ni September
serious
hookonoonéíhi- vai 1) to be serious, 2) to be respected
serve
nííston- vta 1) to serve s.o., 2) to work for s.o., 3) to make something for s.o.
service berry
héyowúúwukóó' ni bark of service berry or June berry bush, scientific name Amelanchier alnifolia (bark)
héyowúúwuno ni service berries or June berries, scientific name Amelanchier alnifolia (berries)
set apart
cei'ísoo' vii 1) to be separate, set apart, 2) to be different
set off
ce3éí'oo- vai to set out, set off, depart
césisíhcehí- vai to start running, start moving rapidly, set off rapidly
set on fire
wótonihéíhi- vai to have been set on fire
set on fire
wótonóúhu- vai to start a fire for oneself
set up camp
hóotíí- vai to camp (individually rather than as a group or tribe), to set up camp
set
ne'ísee- vai (the sun) to set
seven
níísootoxúuusí'i vii 1) (pl.) there are seven days, 2) (pl.) it lasts for seven days
níísootox num seven
níísootoxú- vai to be seven in number
seventeen
béteetox níísootóxuuni num seventeen
seventy
níísootósoo' num seventy
sew
hoxoyéí- vai 1) to sew something, 2) to mend something (by sewing)
hóótoonéíhini- vii 1) to be attached with sinew, 2) to be sewn
sex
toncí3- vta have sex with s.o.
shade
toukoohóe ni 1) lean-to, 2) shade (type of shelter)
tóukóús- vai to stay in the shade
shadow
betéé3oo na 1) shadow, 2) spirit, angel
shady
toukoyóó- vii to be shady
toukousé- vii to be shady
shaggy
có'onéé- vai 1) to have fur, be furry, 2) to be shaggy
biisí'éí- vai to be shaggy, have shaggy hair or fur, as in a dog
shake hands
wotí'ookoonó3etíít ni shaking hands upon separating at the end of an event
néniníixóúhu- vai to shake hands with people
néninííxoeh- vta to shake s.o.'s hand
néninííxoo3- vta to shake s.o.'s hand
shake
hehíínoo'óó- vai to shake, shiver, tremble
no'owúnoo'oo- vii to shake
hisibéhi- vai to shake from illness
kookónkuu3- vta to shake s.o.
kookonkuutíí- vai to shake something
share
te3esíne- vai to do one's share in some task
sharp leg
tóxu'óónee- vai to have a sharp leg
sharp
toxu'éíhi- vai 1) to be pointed, 2) to be sharp
toxu'óó- vii to be pointed, sharp
sharpen
tóxu'óóxuhee- vai to sharpen a knife
toxu'óh- vti to sharpen s.t.
shatter
3o'óh- vti to pound s.t., shatter s.t.
3o'ús- vai to shatter
3o'usetíí- vai to shatter something by smashing or throwing
shave
kó'neebi'íístii- vai to shave
kó'neebi'iis- vta to shave s.o.
shawl
cih'oosóu ni shawl
she
nenéénit pronoun he, she, third person pronoun
shears
ko'uxónoo ni scissors, shears
shed
hecéxo'oowú' ni shed, small building
sheep
heebetóte' na big sheep
hóte' na sheep
có'oneenóte' na wool-bearing sheep
sheepdog
hoteiné3 na sheepdog
sheepherder
hoteine'có'eihii na sheepherder, shepherd
sheetrock
see'3iixohú' ni 1) flat surface nailed on to something, 2) sheetrock
shelf
hóú3oó ni rack, shelf
Shell River
Bei'i'iiniicie placename the name of several rivers including the North Platte River and the Michigan River
shell
bee3o'oubéét ni turtle shell
kokuyonó3 ni shell of a bullet
bei'í ni shell, seashell
shelter
nii3oe'ínowoo- vai to make a willow shelter (e.g. coo'oeyóó) for oneself
co'óe'ín- vti to make s.t. out of willows, e.g. a brush shelter
co'oeyóó ni dome-shaped brush shelter made of willows
koonóyeisííhi' adv having to do with shelter or an animal's den or lodge
hoyéíhowoot ni shelter
hoe'óén- vti to make a shelter out of willows
hóyeinoo- vii to be sheltered
shepherd
hoteine'có'eihii na sheepherder, shepherd
Shetland pony
teitóóx na Shetland pony
shield
woxookeihi' ni shield
tokookeihi' ni shield
shin
wóxos na shin
shine
noh'óeséíhi- vai to shine, be illuminated
noh'óeséí'oo- vii to shine, be illuminated
shiny
no'kósoo- vii to be shiny
no'koséíhi- vai to be shiny
ship
3iiw ni boat, canoe, ship
shirt
biixúút ni 1) shirt, blouse, 2) dress
shiver
hehíínoo'óó- vai to shake, shiver, tremble
shoe polish
xo'óheé ni shoe polish
shoe
wo'óh ni 1) shoe, 2) moccasin
wo'ohnóonéíhi- vai to be given mocassins or shoes
wo'oxéín- vta to shoe a horse
shoelace
wohuukutíí- vai to tie shoelaces
wohúúk na shoelace
shoemaker
wo'ohnéíhii na shoemaker
shoot
cóboo- vai to shoot, fire a shot
coocóboo- vai to shoot repeatedly, fire repeated shots
cóboo- vai to shoot
cebii- vai to shoot at someone
ceb- vta to shoot s.o., shoot at s.o.
cob- vta to shoot s.o. with a gun
cebít- vti to shoot s.t., shoot at s.t.
shop
hotóónee- vai to shop, buy things
short man
ce'ehíhinen na a 'short man' in the division between 'short men' and 'stout men' in ceremonies
short
tooto'oonee- vai to have short legs
to'ohúh- vai to be short
ce'ehíh- vai to be short
to'éíhi- vii to be short
to'oee- vii to be short
shortcut
hoxowúsee- vai to take a shortcut (on foot)
hóxowkoohuuhéí- vai to take a shortcut (on horseback)
hóxowkoohú vai to take a shortcut (running or by car)
shortening
no3oncebítee ni shortening
shorts
to'ótoo ni shorts
to'otoohéé- vai to wear shorts
Shoshone
sosoní'iinén na Shoshone man
sósoní' na Shoshone person
sósoni'ííteen na Shoshone tribe
sósoni'ísei na Shoshone woman
shoulder
bece'éenoo ni-dep shoulder
beteexuu'eenoo ni-dep shoulder
shouldn't
wonó'- pv one shouldn't ...
shout
nooxúnee- vai 1) to shout, 2) speak loudly as when announcing something
beeseinéétii- vai to shout
nééni'oub- vta to shout at s.o. in anger
shovel
se'béí'ci3e' ni shovel, spade
show up
híi3ínoo'óó- vai to show up suddenly from someplace else
show
hóówo'bisísi- vii to be barely showing
noohoo3ih- vta to show something to s.o., make something visible to s.o.
shrivel
hookowoonéétee- vii to shrivel (due to heat)
shrub
cóó'oo'éé' ni shrub, bush
shut
howuutééyei- vai to shut the door
shy
nototéíhi- vai to be shy
sibling
nééhebéhe' na-dep younger sibling, younger brother or sister
sick
hesówobéíhi- vai to be ill, sick
sickle
kó'osohóe ni scythe, sickle
sickness
hesówobeihíít ni illness, sickness, disease
side
honohúbe' particle on the opposite side, on the other side
kokóon- pv on the side, beside
céíteenííhi' adv this side (near the speaker)
céiwóótee- vii to be located off to the side, has been moved aside
sift
beexu'kuutíí- vai to sift something, as in flour
sigh
néétetóuhu- vai to sigh
sight
sebeyóhoéé ni gun sight
sign language
bee3osóhoot ni sign language
bee3osóho'o ni sign language
bee3osóhowuun- vta to say something to s.o. with sign language
bee3osóhoee- vai to use sign language, to sign
sign
tóe'sóh'owuun- vta to make a sign to s.o. to stop doing something
silk
niixóosóotí' ni silk
silly
ceeséíhi- vai to be silly
silver spruce
ni'íbootoúú ni silver spruce
silver
nookubéí'ci3e' ni silver
silverberry
nookúwuno ni silverberry, scientific name Elaeagnus commutata
sin
woxútoo- vai 1) to do something wrong, do something bad, 2) to sin
since
tih- pv when (imperfective), since
sincere
hee3oowú3ecoo- vai to be sincere
sinew
beetéyook na 1) bowstring, 2) string or rope made of sinew, 3) also extended to other string not made of sinew
hóoté ni sinew
sing
béetóótinee- vai to finish singing
niibéí- vai to sing
niiboon- vta to sing for s.o.
niibóót- vti to sing s.t.
betéénee- vai to sing sacred songs
singe
kónohuxóh- vta to singe s.o. (anim. obj.), as in feathers
singer
hiibéíhii na singer
niibeiínen na singer
niibeihíí- vai to be a singer
single file
nííteiséé- vai to walk in single file, march
níítei'óó- to be arranged in single file
nííteiniikohéí- vai to ride in single file
sink
hinówou'oo- vai to sink
hinówou'oo- vii to sink
Sioux
nó'otnéíhino' na Sioux
sister in law
nei3ébi na-dep (my) sibling in law of the opposite sex, (my) brother in law (woman speaking), (my) sister in law (man speaking)
notó'u na-dep 1) (my) sister in law, 2) (my) female friend
sister
néteséí na-dep (my) sibling of the opposite sex, (my) brother (woman speaking), (my) sister (man speaking)
nébi na-dep (my) older sister
nééhebéhe' na-dep younger sibling, younger brother or sister
sit down
ceenóku- vai to sit down
ceenókun- vta to sit s.o. down, have s.o. sit down
sit fast
ni'óku- vai to sit fast, be a good bronc rider
sit in a circle
ko'éín3i'óku- vai to sit in a circle
sit
xóó'oekuuceenóku- vai to sit down in a kneeling position
3i'óku- vai to sit, be sitting
tees3i'óku- vai to sit on top of something
téi'3i'óku- vai to sit strongly, to continue sitting in the face of harassment
nei'óku- vai to sit tight, sit still
3í'okúut- vti to sit with s.t.
six
nííto num six
níítootox num six
níítootoxú- vai to be six in number
sixteen
béteetox níítootóxuuni num sixteen
sixty
niitootósoo' num sixty
skate
siiwonéí- vai to ice skate
skeleton
3iik ni 1) corpse, 2) skeleton
3iikon ni 1) skull , 2) skeleton
skeletonplant
be3énecó'ono ni rush skeletonplant, skeletonweed, scientific name lygodesmia juncea
skill
niihénehéí3it- vti to own some power or skill which was given by a superhuman source
skillet
ko'yeiyóó ni frying pan, skillet
skin
wonóx ni-dep, na-dep skin
skinny
woxooneehí- vai 1) to be thin, skinny, 2) to be overly thin, too skinny
skirt
híseinbiixúút ni dress, skirt
skull
3iikon ni 1) skull , 2) skeleton
3iikoné' ni skull
skunk oil
xoucebitee ni skunk oil
skunk
xoo na skunk
xouhu' na skunk
skunkbrush
bee'éí'i ni squawberry, skunkbrush
sky
hóno' ni sky
skylight
noh'eihóó ni 1) window, 2) skylight
slam
noote'eisib- vta to slam s.o.
noote'eistíí- vai to slam something
slap
se'tebi'eih- vta to slap s.o.
sleep in the cold
tóyo'síne- vai to lie in the cold, sleep in the cold (without getting cold or freezing)
sleep
nokohukóóhu- vai 1) to go to sleep, 2) to take a nap
nókohu- vai to sleep, be asleep
teesnókohu- vai to sleep on top of something
níhi'neenokohu- vai to sleep soundly
sleepy
nowóne- vai to be drowsy, sleepy
sleet
biinoneeci- vii to be sleeting
sleigh bell
cee'einóóni' ni sleigh bell (flowers), harebell, scientific name Campanula rotundifolia
slice meat
se'ésoonéé- vai to slice meat
slice
ci'óx- vti to slice s.t.
soo'oééx- vti to slice s.t.
slippery
hixoosóó- vii to be slippery, smooth
hixooséíhi- vai to be slippery
slither
hoocéísee- vai to crawl or slither, e.g. a snake
slope
hoxtóóno'óúni- vii there is a bank, steep slope, or cliff there
slow
kóxo'ootéíhi- vai to be slow
kóxo'oo3oo- vii to be slow
slowly
kóxo'úsee- vai to walk slowly
kóó'oe- pv slowly, carefully, in due time
kóxo'úúhu' adv slowly
kóó'oetoo- vai to do something slowly
small
hokeciihíh- vai to be little, small, tiny
hokecóúhu- vii to be little, small
hokecóúhuni- vii to be little, small
hokecii'óó'oo- vii to become little, small
noxowniiwo'óó- vii to become little, small
tesókecóúhu- vii to be tiny, very small
tesókeciihíh- vai to be tiny, very small
hecesóó- vii 1) to be small, 2) to be narrow
heceséíhi- vai to be small
hokeciihí- vai to be small
smart
he'éíhi- vai 1) to be knowledgeable, smart, wise, 2) to be sane, of sound mind
smash
3ó'o'óótiinoon- vta to crush or smash a part of s.o.'s body
smell bad
woxúbouhu- vai to smell bad, stink
smell
bénou'oo- vii to have an odor, smell
woxubóoó' vii it stinks, smells bad
woxúbou'óó- vii to smell bad, stink
benóú'oo- vai to have an odor, to smell
woxubóootí- vii to smell bad
ni'bóootí- vii to smell good
ní'ibóu'óó- vii to smell good
bénoob- vta to smell s.o. (anim. obj.)
benóót- vti to smell s.t.
smile
hoxou'éi'óó- vai to smile
hoxou'éi'óóton- vta to smile at s.o.
smoggy
ceetéése- vii to be hazy, misty, smoggy
smoke
kotee- vii 1) (a large conflagration) to give off smoke, to burn, 2) there is a brush fire
ceetéé ni 1) smoke (from a fire), 2) haze, 3) mist
xóúú'oo- vii to give off smoke, steam or vapor
nííxohóúsi- vii to be covered with smoke
híícoo- vai to smoke
híicóoh- vta to smoke with s.o., specifically in the context of helping them or making an agreement with them
smoky
kootéé- vii to be smoky
céeetee- vii to be smoky
smooth
hixoosóó- vii to be slippery, smooth
smudge
ceeh'éí'i- vai to burn incense, smudge cedar
cooh'óee- vai to smudge or cedar
cóóh'owuun- vta to smudge s.o., cedar s.o.
snail
wóó'oowoo3ííbeihii na snail
snake
síísííyei na snake
snake-like
heyoocéíhi- vai to be rope-like, snake-like
snap
toyoowkúú3- vta to snap at s.o., bite s.o.
sneak
hiibineecebísee- vai to sneak by, go by secretly
sneeze
hi3íbi- vai to sneeze
sneezeweed
3iwohoeenó ni sneezeweed, scientific name Dugaldia hoopesii
snipe
céecéé'ihéíhii na snipe
snore
3ii'óóbe- vai to snore
snot
be'íi na-dep snot
snow
hiií na snow
hiinííni- vii (snow) to be on the ground
te'ceeci- vii to be snowing and melting
beeci- vii to snow
no'oteeci- vii to snow heavily
snowberry
3ííkoníbino' ni 1) (pl.) snowberries, scientific name Symphoricarpos spp. (berries), 2) (pl.) dogwood berries, Swida sericea (berries)
so that
hét- pv so that, in order that
heetíh- pv so that, in order that
soak
nii'óú3ib- vta to soak s.o. (anim. obj.)
nii'ou3etíí- vai to soak s.t.
soap
he'hiisí'ohúút ni soap
social security
niiko'óéyei- vai to receive a pension, be on social security
sock
wosóúhu' ni 1) sock, 2) (pl.) stockings
soft
seenéíhi- vai 1) to be soft, 2) (a tire) to be flat
cécihóóceihi- vai (e.g. a rope) is soft, supple
cécihóó- vii to be soft
cécihéíhi- vai to be soft
3o'óóceihi- vai to be soft (e.g. a rope)
soldier
beníiinén na 1) ?member of a group such as a ceremonial Lodge, 2) soldier
sole
ko'eiyóó ni 1) rawhide, 2) moccasin sole
se'éíhtoo ni sole (of the foot)
some
hoo3óó'o' na 1) (plural) others, 2) (plural) the rest, 3) (plural) some
someone
he'ííteihí3i particle someone, somebody
something
heeyóúhuu ni 1) thing, 2) stuff, 3) something, anything
he'íí3ooní'i particle something
he'íi3óú'u particle something
sometime
tóónei'ííhi' adv sometime, whenever
somewhere
he'íitnéí'i particle somewhere
he'íí3e'- pv somewhere there
son in law
ne3é'ex ni-dep my son in law
son
neíh'e na-dep (my) son
song
béteenóótin ni sacred song
niibóót ni song, melody
soon
nóhohoonííhi' adv immediately, instantly, soon
noxxoenííhi' adv soon
héihíí particle soon
nohohee- pv soon
sore
no'oxóéhi- vai to ache, be sore
no'óxoyóó- vii to be sore, tender
sound
ni'étóyotí' vii it sounds good
nii3nóóyotí- vii to be sounding out
soup
hókok ni broth, soup, stew
sour
siisíncoo- vii to be sour
South Platte River
niinéniiniicíihéhe' placename 1) Unknown place in central Wyoming , 2) Denver and the South Platte River in Colorado
south
nóóbe'einííhi' adv 1) in the south, 2) to the south, southwards
Southern Arapaho
Nóówunóno'ei na Southern Arapaho
Nowoo3inen na member of the Southern sub-tribe of Arapahos, identified by Curtis
Nóówunén na Southern Arapaho man
sow
ciinéyei- vai to plant, sow
nenííteine3éneet na sow (female pig)
spade
se'béí'ci3e' ni shovel, spade
sparrow hawk
ciicííhii na sparrow hawk, kestrel
sparrow
hecésii'ehíhi' na sparrow
sparrow
níí'ehíhi' na sparrow
speak
cé'eséíti- vai 1) to speak differently, 2) to speak a foreign language
heenéti3- vta 1) to talk to s.o., speak with s.o., 2) to call s.o. over
ni'éíti- vai to speak well
speaker
heenetííhii na 1) speaker, person who is speaking, 2) talkative person
nóooxunéíhii na speaker, person who is speaking
Spear Lodge
biitoheinénno' ni (pl.) members of the Spear Lodge
biitoh'oowú' ni Spear Lodge
biitoheisoo na Spear Lodge child, little Spear Lodge dancer, one of the two boys who participates in the Spear Lodge dance, also identified as a dancer of the fourth degree in the biitoh'oowu' dance
speech
heenetíít ni 1) language, 2) speech, 3) voice
spell
hooko'éé- vai to cast a spell
hooko'óó3 vta to put s.o. under a spell
spend the night
hetéiní- vai to spend the night somewhere
spherical
ce'éé- vii to be approximately round, approximately spherical
ceteyóó- vii to be round, spherical
ceteyéíhi- vai to be round, spherical
spider web
hoo3oonoyoot ni spider web
spider
nih'óó3oo na 1) spider, 2) white man (person), Caucasian, 3) a trickster figure in Arapaho mythology
spill
kóúskuu3éíhi- vai to be spilled out of something
kousén- vti to spill s.t. (liquid, dirt, sand)
spine
wótotóoy ni-dep backbone, spine
spirit
bíitéí na ghost, spirit
betéé3oo na 1) shadow, 2) spirit, angel
céi3iwooó na 1) spirit, 2) (pl.) radio
céi3ibéé- vai 1) to communicate with spirits, 2) to have a guardian spirit
céi3wó'oní- vai to have an accompanying or guardian spirit
spit
kou3héyei- vai to spit
splint
wóóhonookú3oó ni splint
split open
koh'únoo'oo- vii to be cracked, split open
split wood
cih'ohúsee- vai to split wood
split
koxhóotéé- vii to be split off or cut away from
níh'einowóótiini' vii something has been split up, something has been divided up among people, scattered among people
koh'óh- vta to split s.o. (anim. obj.)
spoiled
woxoowúse- vii (a liquid, e.g. milk) to be rotten, spoiled, rancid
sponsor
nebésiibéhe' na-dep 1) my grandfather, 2) my ceremonial sponsor
spook
hiso'on- vta to scare s.o., spook s.o. (e.g. an animal)
híso'on- vta to spook an animal, scare an animal out of hiding
spoon
heebeteebíyoo na serving spoon
heebíyoo na spoon
spore
boh'óooníbeé ni 1) mushroom, 2) mushroom spores
spotted
kookúteeyóó- vii 1) to be spotted, 2) to be polka dotted
kókuteenéíhi- vai to be spotted, have spots
spread
nih'éiseenóó- vii to be spread, disseminated
híi3ohwóót ni any kind of spread (e.g. butter, margarine, jam)
hii3óhowoo- vai to spread something (e.g. butter on bread)
spring
hooxéb ni 1) spring (source of water), 2) fountain, 3) well
xooxo'oesé- vii to become springtime, for the weather to thaw
hesteenec ni hot spring(s)
hooxebecííhi' particle in spring water
béénii'owúúni' ni spring (season)
bénii'owúúni- vii to be spring
sprinkle
kóni'oosóóti' vii (rain) is sprinkling
kóni'oosóó- vii to be sprinkling, raining lightly
spruce
ni'íbootoúú ni silver spruce
nii'ibóoóti' ni spruce or fir tree, scientific names Abies bifolia, Picea engelmannii, Pseudostuga menziesii
hiséé3 ni spruce, pine, scientific name Pinus spp.
3óxu'usééto' ni Colorado spruce, scientific name Picea pungens
ni'ibootou ni Colorado spruce tree, scientific name Picea pungens
spy
hiiwookú'oo- vai 1) to peek, watch or see someone while hiding, 2) to spy on someone
square
kookoyóó' ni square
kokoyóó- vii to be square
squash
séyoun- vta to crush s.o. by hand, squash s.o., squeeze s.o.
béíhko' na squash
séyou'on- vta to squash s.o. with one's foot
séyoun- vti to squash s.t. with one's hand
squat
co'óku- vai to squat
squawberry gravy
bé'eené'eek ni squawberry gravy
squawberry
bee'éí'i ni squawberry, skunkbrush
squeeze
séyóúnob- vti to crush s.t. by hand, mash s.t., squeeze s.t.
séyoun- vta to crush s.o. by hand, squash s.o., squeeze s.o.
squint
sesíísnookú'oo- vai to squint
squirrel
xoxooyóni' na chipmunk, striped ground squirrel
nó'oúh na 1) squirrel, 2) extended to other similar small rodents
honi' na squirrel
stab
koxukóh- vti to pierce s.t., stab s.t.
koxukóh- vta 1) to pierce, stab s.o., 2) to vaccinate s.o., give s.o. an injection
stable
wóxhooxúno'oowú' ni stable (for horses)
staff
nouuse'éíci3oo ni long lance with a hook like a cane, staff
nouute'éíci3oo ni staff (long stick, rod)
stake
3ííxo'óé ni 1) peg, 2) stake
stallion
nóhoo na stallion
stamp
héíbikuu3oo ni postage stamp, sticker
kohyeibí3oó ni postage stamp
stampede
tokohúú3ei- vai 1) to stampede, 2) to win (e.g. a basketball game) by a large margin
stand up
koheí'i- vai get up or stand up (from a sitting or lying position), arise
téi'íít- vti to stand up to a test through strength, be strong enough to pass a test
stand with
niitookuub- vta to stand with s.o.
stand
3i'ookuutii- vai to stand something up, set something in an upright position
3í'ookúúhu- vii to be made to stand, stood up
ho3es3íí'ookuu- vai to be standing in plain sight
3i'ookúú- vai to stand
hiiné'eekúú- vai to stand around aimlessly
téiitooyéékuu- vai to stand calmly, quietly
niisóókuu- vai to stand in a certain way, stand in that way
star child
hó3o'úúsoo na star child, Little Star
Star Lodge
hó3o'uhuunén na Star Man, member of the Star Lodge
hó3o'húúho' na (pl.) Star Men, members of the Star Lodge age-grade society
Star Men
hó3o'húúho' na (pl.) Star Men, members of the Star Lodge age-grade society
star
nookóóx na 1) cross, 2) morning star
nenowó3o' na north star
hó3o'uhuunén na Star Man, member of the Star Lodge
hó3o' na star
stare
nootookú'oo- vai to stare
nóxootoohob- vta to stare at s.o.
start a fire
wótitonéé- vai to start a fire
wóti3óúhu- vai to start a fire for oneself
start
ce3- pv begin to do something, inceptive
césis- pv to begin to do something
césistoo- vai to begin to do something
cé3e3ééyei- vai to start a fire, get a fire started
cési3oo'oo' vii it gets/has gotten started, begun
starve
neetokooyéí- vai to starve, be starving
hesinéé- vai 1) to be hungry, 2) (figuratively) to be starving
station
teesihcehéíno'oowú' ni railroad station, train station
stature
bééxookee- vai 1) to be grown up, 2) to be of large stature (figuratively)
stay close
to3íh- vta to follow s.o., stay close to s.o.
niihó'- vti to stay close by something, to follow along something (e.g. a river, when traveling)
niihó'ob- vta to stay close to s.o., to follow along with s.o.
stay
nee'éétoo- vai that is where someone is located, that is where someone is staying
nee3ó'oo- vai to stay in a particular place
beesei- vai to stay in the same place a long time
neesééntoo- vai to stay, remain in a place
heetein- vai to stay somewhere overnight
steak
hócoo ni 1) steak , 2) something fried
steal horses
hébiitóóxobei- vai 1) to steal a horse, steal horses, 2) also extended to stealing cattle or other livestock
steal
hebííteb- vta to steal from s.o.
hebííte- vai to steal something
steam
xóúú'oo- vii to give off smoke, steam or vapor
steep
3iixobéé- vii to be steep
stenographer
wo3onóheihii na secretary, stenographer
step aside
wootóó particle step aside, go away
step up
teesciiyei'í- vai to step up
step
houhúút ni step
hoowciiyei'í- vai to step down
niisciiyei'í- vai to take a single step
stew
hókok ni broth, soup, stew
stick in
3ííxo'oekúútii- vai to stick something in the ground standing up
stick out
3i'eibí- vii to jut out, stick out
stick
bíínohooó ni 1) digging stick, 2) crowbar
bes ni 1) wood, piece of wood, 2) stick, rod
héíbton- vta to stick something on to s.o.
sticker
héíbikuu3oo ni postage stamp, sticker
sticky
kóúhuyóó- vii to be sticky
stiff
bé3e'éé- vii to be hard, stiff, tough
be3o'óóceihi- vai (e.g. a rope) to be stiff
still
téiitoonéíhi- vai to be quiet, calm, still
nosóu- pv continue to do something, still, ongoing
téiitooyóó- vii to be calm, still, quiet
nosounííhi' adv still, ongoing
sting
kóhkohéí- vai to sting, e.g. an insect
stingy
ciiko'ootéíhi- vai to be selfish, stingy
stink
woxubóoó' vii it stinks, smells bad
woxúbou'óó- vii to smell bad, stink
ho3eihtee- vai to have stinky feet
stirrup
3eiyei'ok ni stirrup
stitch
hoxoyóót- vti 1) to stitch s.t., sew s.t., 2) to mend s.t., 3) to fix s.t.
hoxoyóó3- vta to mend s.o., stitch s.o. (anim. obj.)
stocky
hiisooowú- vai to be robust, stocky
stomach
woce'ót ni-dep stomach
stone fruit
beesíb ni 1) plum, 2) can be extended to include other large-seeded fruit such as peaches and apricots
stone
hoho'nóókee na rock, stone
stop
too'úhohu- vai to stop flying
tóú'kuu3éí'i- vai to stop quickly or suddenly
too'úhcehi- vai to stop running, stop short
tou'cí3- vta to stop s.o.
too'én- vti to stop s.t.
tou'úhcehí- vai to stop suddenly
too'úsee- vai to stop walking
stopper
hokóh- vti to close s.t., stopper s.t.
hokóhoee ni cork, stopper
store
hotóóneeno'oowú' ni market, store
storm
no'uusooó- vii to be stormy, storming
stormy
hiinoonó'etí- vii 1) to be cloudy, 2) to be stormy
story
hoo3ítoo3óó' vii (a story) is told, has been told
hoo3íte'e- vai to tell a story
hóó3itóúhu- vai to tell a story for oneself
hoo3ítoot- vti to tell s.t., narrate s.t. (e.g. a story)
hoo3ítoon- vta to tell s.o. a story, tell s.o about something
heeteetéí- vai to tell a story, tale
heetéétoo ni legend, story, tale
hoo3ítoó ni story, tale
hoo3ítootiini' vii stories are told
hoo3ítoonííni- vai to have a story (about oneself, or to tell)
stove
hesítee ni 1) fire, 2) furnace, heater, stove
straight
xoubeekúú- vai 1) to be erect, 2) stand straight, upright
xóuuw- pv 1) straight, straightly, 2) direct, directly
xóuuwúnihíí- vai to speak in a straight, proper, truthful way
xóuuwutoo- vai to act straight, act properly
xóuuwúseenóó- vii to proceed in a straight or proper way
xóuubéíhi- vai to be straight, upright
xouubéé- vii 1) to be straight, 2) to be upright
xóuuwúúhu' adv straight, in a straight manner
xóuuwóotéé- vii to be placed in a straight way
xóuuwúsee- vai to go straight, walk in a straight line
strange
cee'ínonéíhi- vai to be strange, confused, mixed up
henees- pv strange, foreign, other
cee'ínoyoo- vii to be strange, queer, weird
kóhtobéíhi- vai to be funny, strange, unusual
heneesóó- vii to be strange
stranger
heneesíísei na (female) stranger
heneesinén na (male) stranger
strap
woo3onesí' ni 1) leather, 2) leather strap
straw
cíín3o'oeyóó ni straw
strawberry
hiteehíb na strawberry, scientific name Fragaria spp.
stream
koho'ówu' ni 1) gully, ditch, ravine, gulch, 2) small stream
koho'wúúni' vii there is a gully, ditch or small stream there
kóh'owúúni' vii there is a gully, ditch, small stream there
street
kooxootéé' ni street
strength
ce'éecehínoo'óó- vai to have regained one's strength
ce'éecóho'óó- vai to regain one's strength
stretch
siikoocéín- vta to stretch s.o. (anim. obj.)
siikoocéín- vti to stretch s.t.
strike
to'ob- vta to hit s.o., punch s.o., strike s.o.
ko'óó3oníí- vai to be ready to strike, e.g. a snake
koh'e3eih- vta to strike someone and cause them or part of them to break or crack
string
beetéyook na 1) bowstring, 2) string or rope made of sinew, 3) also extended to other string not made of sinew
wohoonínook ni string, thread, yarn
strong root
téí'oxú'wunee ni 'strong root'
strong
téi'einóehi- vai to be strong, physically fit
téí'oocéíhi- vai (a rope or rope-like object) to be strong
tei'- pv strong
téi'éíhi- vai to be strong
téí'oo- vii to be strong
téi'íítowoo- vai to be strong enough to obtain something for oneself
tei'óówu- vii to be strong liquid (e.g. coffee, tea)
téi'óuuwúhetí- vai to feel strong
stubbord
ceyootéíhi- vai to be stubborn
stuck upright
3oo'oekuu- vai to be standing stuck upright in the ground
stuck
héíbiní- vii to be stuck, attached to something
héíbi- vii to be stuck, attached to something
héíbi- vai to be stuck, attached to something
student
neyei3éíhii na 1) pupil, student, 2) reader, literate person
neyei3éí- vai 1) to count, 2) to read, 3) to study, go to school, be a student
neyéi3eihííni- vai to be a student
stuff
cíi3kúútii- vai to stuff something inside a place
succeed
ceestówoo- vai 1) to succeed, 2) to accomplish something
suck
niitón- vta to doctor s.o. by sucking
niicoob- vta to suck s.o. (anim. obj.)
niicoot- vti to suck s.t.
sucker
nenseinetineenówo' na sucker (fish)
suddenly
koxúúten- pv 1) suddenly, 2) surprisingly
koxúúte' particle 1) suddenly, 2) unexpectedly, 3) sometimes
kookoxuuténin particle suddenly
nóonóxowúúhu' adv suddenly, implies a violent event
sugar
niisíscoo' ni sugar
suicide
neh'etí- vai to commit suicide
suited
teekó'- vti 1) to fit s.t. (e.g. clothes), 2) to be ready or suited for s.t. (e.g. a power)
sumac
hice'ii'isihihi' berries used as medicine to make horses run rapidly, possibly berries of sumac, scientific name Rhus spp.
noowúbe'éí'i ni (pl.) fragrant sumac, scientific name Rhus aromatica
cóó3úwuno' (pl.) fragrant sumac, skunkbush, scientific name Rhus aromatica
summer
benííce' ni summer
bííceniisííni- vii to be a summer day
bííce- vii to be summer
summertime
bíícenííhi' adv in the summertime
bííce- vii to be summertime
summit
hiixóú'u'úúhu' adv up at the top, at the summit
3oonííhi' adv 1) below, less, in the middle, 2) at the summit (as of someone's head, or the course of the sun)
Sun Child
hiisiisiisoo na Sun Child
hiisiistéí'yoo na Sun Child
sun dance
hoséíhiinohwóót ni 1) Sun Dance Lodge, 2) dance performed during Sun Dance
noh'óuutohóe ni the center pole of the Sun Dance lodge
hóseihoowú' ni Sun Dance Lodge, Sun Dance ceremony
hoséíhiinén na Sun Dance participant, man who has participated in the Sun Dance
hóseihiinóot ni Sun Dance song
sun
hiisíís na the sun
Sunday
beteeníísini'éhk particle on Sunday
beteeníísi' ni Sunday
hebe3 beteeníísi' ni Sunday
heces beteeníísi' ni Sunday
sundown
nii'ne'íseet ni sundown
sunrise
nii'bisíseet ni sunrise
sunset
nii'ne'iseet vai-inflected sunset
superlative
honóuunee- pv superlative, most
supernatural
ceyótowuunenítee na a supernatural being
supple
cécihóóceihi- vai (e.g. a rope) is soft, supple
support
hotóonóó3etí- vai 1) to exchange things among one another, 2) to support one another
hííne'étiih- vta to make a living for s.o., support s.o.
nii3neniib- vta 1) to be with s.o, accompany s.o., be with s.o., 2) to support s.o., stand by s.o.
notóonóó3etíít ni process of supporting one another in difficulty, such as when going through a fasting ceremony
notóónoo3- vta to support s.o., 'take up' for s.o.
suppose
bei' particle suppose that ..., "let's pretend that ..."
supposed to
toh'et- pv was supposed to
sure enough
húutóuuk particle sure enough, just like you'd expect
sure
néé'ee3e'ín- vti to be certain, be sure of s.t.
surpass
cebe'ei- vai to surpass others
surprise
'ííheihóó, exclamation exclamation of surprise, gee!, wow!
yehéíhoo exclamation exclamation of surprise, "gee!," "wow!," "isn't that something!"
ciiséíhi- vai to have been surprised, caught unawares
céeciisíh- vta to surprise s.o.
ciisíihínee- vai to take someone by surprise, as in seizing something
surprisingly
koxúúten- pv 1) suddenly, 2) surprisingly
surround
hiixoxo'on- vta 1) to surround s.o., 2) to come close to s.o., approach s.o.
surrounded
hiixóxo'onéíhi- vai to be surrounded
survey
tokóh- vti 1) to measure s.t., 2) to survey s.t.
suspect
no3óóbeeneb- vta to suspect s.o.
swaddle
héhcitoonóúhu- vai to swaddle a baby
swallow
hééyei bíítei na 1) Swainson's hawk, 2) swallow, especially a cliff swallow
hótoowkuu3- vta 1) to swallow s.o., 2) to devour s.o. (anim. obj.)
hótoowkuutíí- vai 1) to swallow something, 2) to devour something
bííteixoxóúhuu na swallow (bird), especially a cliff swallow
swamp
wóxec ni swamp
swampy
woxecííni- vii to be swampy
woxecii'ííni- vii to be swampy
swan
nooksíísiic na 1) swan , 2) snow goose
niiciibeetih'ohut na swan
no'éí'ihó' na swan
swap
hóóxeebéíhi- vai to swap something, trade something (?anim. obj.)
hooxeebiinetí- vai to swap, trade with one another
hooxeebiin- vta to swap with s.o., trade with s.o.
sway
neeneece'óó- vai to sway
swear
kóotéébinoo3- vta to curse s.o., swear at s.o.
sweat lodge
cííbeen ni a thing used for a sweat lodge, especially the willow frame
ciibéét ni sweat lodge
sweat
kóúwo'oot ni perspiration, sweat
kouwo'óó- vai to perspire, sweat
kóúwo'oot ni sweat
kouwkoohúh- vta to cause s.o. to work up a sweat
kouwo'óónoo- vii to sweat
bísecei'óó- vai to sweat
ciibé- vai to sweat in a sweatlodge
kouwkoohú- vai to work up a sweat
sweep
woti'ohéí- vai to sweep
sweet cicely
wooxubóu'óó' ni sweet cicely and related plants, scientific name Osmorhiza spp.
sweet
nisikocóóno ni (pl.) sweets
nisciixonóót ni something sweet to eat
sweet
nisíscoo- vii to be sweet
sweetclover
3ííkonwonííhiiho' ni (pl.) possibly chainpod, peavine, scientific name Hedysarum spp., or sweetclover, scientific name Melilotus spp.
sweetgrass
ni'óxu' ni sweetgrass, Hierochlo‘ hirta
ní'ibóutéé' ni sweetgrass
sweetheart
nebii'ó'oo na-dep my sweetheart, my girlfriend, my boyfriend
swell
nisóno'óó- vii to be swollen, inflated
koo'óó- vii to swell
nisono'óó- vai to swell
swifthawk
hééyei na hawk, falcon, swifthawk
swim
tóusébi- vai 1) to swim, 2) to take a bath, bathe
hiinouu- vai 1) to swim around, 2) to bathe
cowouwú- vai to swim
hiinouwú- vai to swim around
swing
neeneecihíít ni swing
neeneecéíhi- vai to swing
neeneeckúú3- vta to swing s.o.
switch
nisíkoh- vta to whip s.o., switch s.o.
niskóhei- vai to whip, switch
niskohóe ni switch, whip, quirt
niscíbes ni switch, whip
nisikoh- vti to switch s.t., whip s.t.
sword
héébetooxe ni sword
sympathize
howóuunon- vta 1) to have mercy on s.o., 2) take pity on s.t., 3) sympathize with s.o.
syphilis
bo'hókoyei- vai to have syphilis

T

tabasco sauce
nih'oubé'eek ni tabasco sauce, hot sauce
table
bíí3hiitoó ni table
tablecloth
so'oo3óó ni 1) tablecloth, mat, 2) carpet, rug
tableware
besnóoó ni 1) wooden vessel such as pan or plate, 2) extended to dishes or tableware not made from wood
taboo
nénebeenííhi' adv regarding restrictions, taboo
tadpole
hiseinotee na tadpole
tail
nih'oowoonineekúúhu- vai to wag one's tail
hinookóó3 ni bird's tail
3i'ooni'oo- vai (e.g. a horse) to have one's tail up
tíhii ni tail
betíhii ni-dep tail
heyoonínee- vai to have a long tail
hitíhiini- vai to have a tail
take a long time
koutonéíhi- vai 1) to be late, 2) to take a long time to do something
take apart
3owóun- vta to take s.o. apart (anim. obj.)
3owóun- vti to take s.t. apart
take away
síinínee- vai to take things away (e.g. from an enemy)
take care of
hééteniih- vta 1) to protect s.o., 2) to take care of s.o., 3) to watch over s.o.
take cover
hóyeikóóhu- vai take cover (e.g. from bad weather)
take down
hóówben- vta to take s.o. down
hoowbén- vti to take s.t. down
take home
hookootii- vai to take something to one's home
take in
cíí3en- vta to take s.o. into a place
take part
nohcó'oo- vai to participate, take part in something
take s.o. home
hóókoo3- vta to take s.o. home
take
neenóóxobei- vai 1) to bother someone's horses, 2) to take someone's horses
híten- vta 1) to take s.o., 2) to grab s.o.
hitén- vti 1) to take s.t., 2) to grab s.t.
cénenéíhi- vai to be taken down
cenén- vta to bring or take s.o. down from a place up above
cenén- vti to bring or take s.t. down from a place up above
koxo'úten- vti to slowly take something
nouuten- vta to take (animate obj.) outside
3ebóoséí3xoh- vta to take s.o. away over there
no'óetéíxoh- vta to take s.o. down to a river
nó'oo'xoh- vta to take s.o. far away from the camp circle
cííten- vta to take s.o. in
wóteexoh- vta to take s.o. into a crowd, camp, gathering or camp circle
koyein- vta to take s.o. off, pull s.o. out
no'oe'én- vta to take s.o. out of water
yíhxoh- vta to take s.o. to a distant place
cííten- vti to take s.t. inside
koyein- vti to take s.t. off, pull s.t. out
no'oe'én- vti to take s.t. out of water
hiténowoo- vai to take something for oneself, get something for oneself
tale
heeteetéí- vai to tell a story, tale
heetéétoo ni legend, story, tale
hoo3ítoó ni story, tale
talk back
ce'eenéti- vai to talk back
talk
wóówoséí- vai to use filthy language, to talk dirty
heenéti3- vta 1) to talk to s.o., speak with s.o., 2) to call s.o. over
heenéti- vai to talk
tall
henéíhi- vai 1) to be long, 2) to be tall
henixonóehi- vai to be tall
có'ouu3óó- vii to be tall
tallow
níinén ni fat, lard, tallow
tame
hisííne'étii- vai 1) to be gentle, kind, meek, tender, 2) (an animal) to be tame, 3) to be nice, friendly
tan
kooniitee- vii (a hide) is tanned
kooneníii- vai to tan (a hide)
tangle
toukutooceísi- vai to be tangled
touku3óó- vii to be tangled
tape measure
tekooceíyoó ni tape measure
tape
niibeiikúú3oo ni something that makes music or sound, e.g. an organ (musical instrument), phonograph record, audio tape, cd, tape player, cd player, etc.
tar
wó'oteencéí ni tar
tarantula
bíísnih'óó3oo na tarantula
tarp
bee3o'óotí' ni tarp, tarpaulin
tarry
nee3onéíhi- vai to tarry, stay longer than intended
taste
woxcóó- vii to taste bad
ni'cóó- vii to taste good
benóucob- vti to taste s.o. (anim. obj.)
benoucét- vti to taste s.t.
tesni'cóó- vii to taste very good
teach
hiixoohoo3ih- vta to instruct s.o., teach s.o., to show s.o. how to do something
neyéí3eibee- vai to teach
neyéí3eih- vta to teach s.o.
teacher
hiixoohoo3i3éíhii na instructor, teacher
neyéí3eibéíhii na teacher
neyei3ei3éíhii na teacher
neyéí3eibeihííni- vai to be a teacher
tear
cee'éé- vii to be frayed, torn
toteen- vta to tear s.o. (anim. obj.)
ko'oe- vti to tear s.t. out (e.g. a check from a checkbook)
toteekúútii- vai to tear something
tease
hiiníkotiih- vta 1) to play with s.o., 2) to tease or trick s.o.
cóó'ob- vta to kid s.o., joke with s.o., tease s.o.
tedious
ciisíwoo3oo- vii to be monotonous, tedious
teenager
woonootees na young person, often referring to someone in their teens
telephone
wóteikuu3óó ni telephone
wóteikuuton- vta to telephone s.o.
television
ce'ískuu3óó ni 1) film, movie, 2) equipment that displays a film or movie such as a projector or television
tell
hoo3ítoot- vti to tell s.t., narrate s.t. (e.g. a story)
hoo3ítoon- vta to tell s.o. a story, tell s.o about something
ciiwoní'inihíítooni- vii it takes a long time to say it, to tell it
heeteetéí- vai to tell a story, tale
nihíí3- vta to tell s.o., say something to s.o.
héí'tobé'e- vai to tell something, say something
hoo3ítoo3óó' vii (a story) is told, has been told
hoo3íte'e- vai to tell a story
hóó3itóúhu- vai to tell a story for oneself
héí'towuun- vta to tell something to s.o.
temple
hiniiité' ni-dep temple (part of the head)
ten
béteetox num ten
tender
no'óxoyóó- vii to be sore, tender
tendon
3ei3 ni 1) tendon, 2) cartilage, 3) muscle
tent
cebtokóy ni tent
tepee flap
wonotóno' ni-dep 1) ear, 2) tepee flap
tepee
hokóóx na tepee pole
niiinón ni tepee (tipi), tent
heebetokoy ni big tepee
3ouuyokóy ni tepee, cone-shaped tent
testicle
be3éés ni-dep testicle
testify
hoo3itee- vai to testify
thank you
hohóú particle thank you
thank you
hohóúkes particle thank you
thank
bébi'íni- vai to give thanks, show appreciation
Thanksgiving
hohóuhuuníísi' ni Thanksgiving day
that
hí'in particle that, those
híni' particle that, those
ne'- proclitic that (back reference)
hínee particle that, those
thaw
te'cí'oo- vii to be melting, thawing
te'cí'oo- vai to melt, thaw
xooxo'oesé- vii to become springtime, for the weather to thaw
hóókuu'óó- vii to thaw, warm up
The Forks
héetnó'owúú' placename The Forks, WY, where the Big and Little Wind Rivers meet near Riverton, WY
theater
ce'ískuu3eino'óówu' ni theater
theft
hébiitowó'ot ni theft, an act of thievery
then
ne'- pv narrative tense marker meaning then, next, and then
nó'oxoohóhk particle then
ne'ii'ííhi' particle then
there
hii3- pv from there (to here)
honohúbe' particle there, away from here
húú3e' particle there, over there
3ebóoséi3ííhi' adv 1) back there, away over there, 2) in the past
héé3ebcíisíniihííhi' adv over there far along (a watercourse)
henééyoo particle right there
hinít particle right there
3eb- pv there
héé3eb- pv there, over there
3owóótee- vii to be located over there
Thermopolis
Xonoú'oo' ni town of Thermopolis
they
neneení3i' pronoun they, third person plural pronoun
thick
hookoyóó- vii to be thick
co'ookeehí- vai to be thick
co'ookeeyéíhi- vai to be thick
thief
hebiitííhii na thief
hébiitiihííni- vai to be a thief
thigh
becóó ni-dep thigh
thin
kokoun- pv thin, narrow
hecesóóceihi- vai to be thin (e.g. a rope)
kokóuniisóó- vii to be thin (e.g. paper)
thing
heeyóúhuu ni 1) thing, 2) stuff, 3) something, anything
think about
3óó3eeneb- vta 1) to remember s.o., 2) to think about s.o.
think badly
wóxeeneb- vta to think badly of or about s.o.
think highly of
nó'oteenebéíhi- vai to be thought of highly
think
ni'koko'ú3ecoo- vai to be able to concentrate, think clearly
híí3eenebéíhi- vai how someone was thought of, regarded
kookóh'ú3ecóó- vai to think
kokóh'eenéét- vti to think about s.t.
no'u3ecoo- vai to think back
no'ú3ecóót- vti to think back to s.t., have s.t. arrive in one's mind
bééseeneb- vta to think highly of s.o.
co'óuuteenéb- vta to think highly of s.o.
nó'óteenéb- vta to think highly of s.o.
kokóh'eeneb- vta to think of s.o.
tóú3eenéét- vti what does (s.o.) think of s.t.?
heesí3ecóo- vai what or how someone is thinking (relative)
third
néesí'owóó- vii 1) to be the third time, 2) it is the third one
thirst
néétokóóyei- vai to die of thirst
thirsty
nokóóyei- vai 1) to fast ritually, 2) to be thirsty
thirteen
béteetox néésiini num thirteen
this
hiisóho' particle this way, like this
néhe' particle this, animate demonstrative
núhu' particle this, inanimate demonstrative
néhe'eenóh particle this one
núhu'uunóh particle this one
thistle
tóóxu'óó' ni 1) phlox, scientific name Phlox spp., 2) thistle, scientific name Cirsium spp., probably Cirsium edule
thong
nooceiyoo ni thong
those
hí'in particle that, those
híni' particle that, those
thought
hiiní3ecoo ni 1) mind, 2) thought
thousand
beesbetéétosóó' num a thousand
thread
wohoonínook ni string, thread, yarn
3ei'éíyei- vai to thread
threaten
hóóxub- vta to threaten s.o.
three days
néesíiis ni three days
néesíinsíne- vai to stay somewhere for three days
three
nééso num three
neh'í- vai to be three in number
néésneníí- vai to be three in number, to be a group of three
thresh
3o'oéyoo ni threshing machine
throat
beitooó ni-dep throat
throb
ko'ohúúni- vii to throb, pulsate
ko'ohúú- vai to pulse, throb
through
3ookúúhu' adv through
xook- pv through
híi3hííhi' adv through there
xookúsee- vai to walk through something, go through something
throw
hóówkuutii- vai to throw something down
throw away
hoseikuu3- vta to throw s.o. away
hoseikuutii- vti to throw s.t. away
throw
censíb- vta (e.g. a horse) to throw s.o. off, buck s.o. off
césiskúútii- vai 1) to throw something, 2) to turn on something (e.g. a radio) or start something up (e.g. a motor)
sii'ihkúu3éíhi vai to be thrown into water
ko'ósib- vta to throw s.o. against something
hóówkuu3- vta to throw s.o. down
cíí3kuu3- vta to throw s.o. inside a place
hihcikuu3- vta to throw s.o. upwards
hihcikuutii- vti to throw s.t. upwards
hóuu3kúútii- vai to throw something so that it hangs
3éi'ikúuton- vta to toss or throw something into a container for s.o.
thrush
nookoniibeit na 1) hermit thrush, 2) also used as a personal name
thumb
bées3éé3oo ni thumb
thunder cloud
nii'éíhiinó'et ni eagle cloud, thunder cloud
níí'eheinó'etí- vii to be an eagle cloud or thunder cloud
thunder
boh'óoó na thunder
bohooó na thunder
boh'ooo- vii to be thundering
niitóúúhu- vai to thunder
Thunderbird
boh'ooonii'eihii na Thunderbird
Thursday
yéínonóóke' ni Thursday
neeso nonóóke' ni Thursday
thus
néé'ees- pv that is how, that is what, thus
nee'eesóó- vii it is thus, it is like that, that is how it is
néé'eesííhi' adv like that, thusly
tick
hísi' na tick
tickle
hoxóóxeen- vta to tickle s.o.
ticklish
hoxóehi- vai to be ticklish
tie up
tóúku3etí- vai 1) to tie oneself up, 2) to tie something to oneself
tóukutóóxobéí- vai to tie up horses
tie
co'o'éín ni necktie, tie
wo'éín ni 1) necklace, 2) scarf, 3) tie
wohuukutíí- vai to tie shoelaces
tóúku3etí- vai 1) to tie oneself up, 2) to tie something to oneself
noo'óeetóúkuhú- vii to be tied up all around an area or place
tóúku3- vta to tie s.o. up
co'óoxúucíhi- vai to tie something around one's waist
tóúkutíí- vai to tie something up
tied up
tóúkuhú- vai 1) to be tied up, 2) to be in jail
ciitóukúhu- vai to be tied up inside an area, such as a corral
tied
nestóúkuhú- vii to be left behind tied to something
tiger
bexóókee na 1) cougar, mountain lion, 2) also extended to tiger
tight
nih'óó- vii to be tight
tighten
nih'oo'óh- vti to tighten s.t.
tightly
nei'- pv closely, tightly
timber
neeyéíc ni timber
time
téébe particle just now, just in time
cis- pv a duration of time, length of time, a while
cisííni- vai to take a certain time to do something, take a while
nó'oxóó- vii the time has arrived
timer
he'íyoohééhii ni timer
timid
nito'éí- vai to be timid
tinder
cih'óxuú ni tinder
cíínohúxoono ni tinder
noosoo' ni ?tinder, plant used for tinder
tingle
biiseeyou'óó- vii to tingle
tiny
hokeciihíh- vai to be little, small, tiny
tesókecóúhu- vii to be tiny, very small
tesókeciihíh- vai to be tiny, very small
tip
hi3ecínoo'óó- vai to tip over
tipi cover
hookseetohuut ni tipi cover, tipi liner
tipi
niiinón ni tepee (tipi), tent
hokóóx na tepee pole
níiinonííhi' adv related to tipis
nééceeníiinon ni the chief's tipi
tipsy
ni'ouwúhti- vai to be tipsy
tire
ko'einoohtóó na 1) wheel, 2) tire
ko'einó'ohtóó na tire
neetcí3- vta to tire s.o. out, make s.o. tired
neetoxúúh- vta to tire s.o. out, make s.o. tired
tired
ciisibínoo'óó- vai to get tired of something, find something monotonous
hee3neeneetínoo'oo- vai to be dead tired, really tired
neetéíhi- vai to be tired
neetínoo'oo- vai to be tired
neetikóóhu- vai to be tired from running
neetíkotii- vai to be tired from walking
néétoxuuní- vai to be tired from working
neetouubéíhi- vai to feel tired
to that degree
néé'ee3éí'- pv to that degree (cleft)
tohuu3éí'- pv to what degree (interrogative)
he'íi3éí'- pv to what degree (relative)
he'íi3éí'nee- pv to what degree (relative)
toad
koonoonooxobe' na a large toad (unidentified type)
héébe3ooxóbe' na toad
hiseinoteihii na toad
tobacco
síísoowoo na tobacco, scientific name Nicotiana attenuata
today
núhu'úúsi' today
toe
besé' ni-dep toe
together
hoo'einéíhi- vai to be together, assembled
wóóhonén- vti to join s.t. together
wóóhonéíhi- vai to be united, be a group, be together
wóóhonóusé' vii things are laying together, laid out together
wóóhoníseenóó' vii things have come together, things have become linked or joined
wóóhon- pv together, united
wóóhonootéé- vii to be (lying) together
níísneníí- vai to be together
hono'úton- vta to have or keep people or animals together
wóóhonííhi' adv together, in a joint fashion
toilet paper
hébihoonoo'óet ni toilet paper
toilet
niitkooneetóótiini' ni privy, toilet
Tomahawk Lodge
ce'ééxunen na member of the Tomahawk Lodge or War Club Lodge
hiice'eexoowú' ni Tomahawk Lodge
ce'éexóowú' ni Tomahawk Society
tomahawk
3oxóo ni tomahawk, club, war club
tomato
yéino' na tomato
tomorrow
nohkúseic particle 1) morning, 2) tomorrow morning
nooke'éhk particle 1) tomorrow, 2) tomorrow morning
hónohúbe' nooke'ehk ni the day after tomorrow
tongue
bei3ón ni-dep tongue
wóhoo ni tongue of a shoe or boot
tonight
bííkoo particle 1) at night, 2) last night, 3) tonight
tece'ííni'éhk particle tonight
too many
hoowúh- pv too much, too many, excessively
too much
howúhnéniinóó' vii 1) there is a lot , 2) there is too much
hoowúh- pv too much, too many, excessively
tool
niisí3oocííyoono ni tool
tooth
3oxookútee- vai to be missing a tooth
béíci3 ni-dep tooth
toothpick
noonóócohout ni toothpick
top of the head
3óokuní'ei' at the top of the head (of a person)
top
3oontééc ni top of the head
teesííhi' adv on top of
teesísee- vai 1) to get on something, get on top of something , 2) to mount a horse, 3) to get in something (e.g. a car)
hiixóú'u'úúhu' adv up at the top, at the summit
teesí' adv on top
hou3ínee- vai to be on top of something
houusóó ni top (toy)
3ebiixóú'unííhi' adv towards the top
tornado
neyoooxét ni 1) twister, tornado, whirlwind, dust devil, 2) caterpillar
neyoooxetiineesé' ni tornado wind
torture
nóónonóxoo3íh- vta to torture s.o.
toss
heenéíhcikuutíí- vai to toss something up
heenéíhcikuu3- vai to toss something up
touch
béxoh- vta 1) to hit s.o., strike s.o., 2) to touch s.o., make contact with s.o.
nébkúúhu- vai to have been touched after first having had a touching motion made four times, as in ceremonial blessing or painting
bésen- vta to touch s.o.
tíí'en- vta to touch s.o. (e.g. to get their attention)
nébkúútii vai to touch something after first having made a touching motion four times, as in ceremonial blessing or painting
béxo'on- vta to touch s.o.
touchy
ciinówouhú- vai 1) to be delicate, 2) to be touchy
tough guy
niih'óeht na tough guy
tough
nó'o3óó- vii to be cruel, tough, very difficult to endure
nó'otéíhi- vai 1) to be tough, mean, 2) to have power
be3o'óseinoo- vii (meat) to be tough
nó'o3íkobee- vai to act tough (in a false way)
noo3íkobee- vai to be tough
téí'oxoeh- vai to be tough (e.g. wood)
teicóó- vii to be tough (e.g. wood)
toward
yih- pv directional preverb, toward a distant place
yiisííhi' adv towards a distant place
yíí3e'einííhi' adv towards a distant place
towel
hehíyoó ni something you wipe with, e.g. a towel, rag, tissue
héíh'eihóó ni towel
town
howóh'oowú' ni town
toy
hiinókotíít na toy
track
3óókuh- vta 1) to follow s.o., 2) track s.o., trail s.o.
nonooxeisé' ni a track
nóoxéíhi- vai to make tracks, leave tracks or footprints
nowuh- vta to track s.o., follow s.o.'s tracks
nowú3éí'i- vai to track someone or something
tracks
nóoxeihíít ni a path, tracks
cowóoxéíhi- vai to leave a path of tracks
nóho'nóoxéíhi- vai to leave tracks going upwards
trade
hóóxeebéíhi- vai to swap something, trade something (?anim. obj.)
hooxeebiinetí- vai to swap, trade with one another
hooxeebiin- vta to swap with s.o., trade with s.o.
hooxóebíínetí- vai to trade, exchange things
traditional
héétee particle 1) before, prior, previous, earlier, 2) in ancient times, traditionally
trail
bóoó ni 1) road, trail, 2) milky way
3óókuh- vta 1) to follow s.o., 2) track s.o., trail s.o.
hitóóxu'óó- vai to be trailing, coming last
nonooxóyoti' ni trail
neenéi3xootííni' ni trail
train station
teesihcehéíno'oowú' ni railroad station, train station
train
cébno3éénotii ni truck, freight train
héso'óónotii na train, locomotive
translate
cowoo3ítoot- vti to interpret s.t., narrate s.t., translate s.t.
translator
cowoo3íteihii na interpreter, translator
transparent
cihkoyóó- vii to be transparent, clear
transvestite
hoxúx na 1) berdache, transvestite, 2) also applied to a homosexual person (of either sex)
trap
ce3- vta to catch, trap or capture an animal
ce3éíhi- vai to have ben caught, trapped or captured
noyóót na 1) rainbow, 2) fishhook, fishing gear, 3) ?trap
nii3nóyei- vai 1) to trap with others, 2) to compete in trapping
nóyoo3- vta to trap s.o. (anim. obj.)
travel
cebikóóhu- vai to pass by, travelling in a vehicle
travois
cébtoo'óóku3óó ni travois
treat
noho'óúúb- vta to invite s.o., treat s.o. by paying on their behalf
hiisíínih- vta how someone treats s.o. else
nééni'íh- vta to treat s.o. well
tree
héé3neebés ni cottonwood, scientific name Populus deltoides
hohóót na 1) tree, 2) cottonwood tree, scientific name Populus deltoides
tebii3oobiis ni a tree or shrub which produced a walnut worn by children for good luck
hohootíínoo'óó- vai to turn in to a tree, become a tree
tremble
hehíínoo'óó- vai to shake, shiver, tremble
hehííkotíí- vai to tremble
tribe
hííteen ni 1) village, 2) tribe
niiciihéíhiiteen ni Kiowa tribe
trickster
nih'óó3oo na 1) spider, 2) white man (person), Caucasian, 3) a trickster figure in Arapaho mythology
tricky
néhtonítoo- vai to act in a tricky or deceitful manner, do something tricky or deceitful
néhtonéíhi- vai to be tricky, deceitful
trim
wotío'óxoo' vii it has been cut off, trimmed away
trinity
neneesnéniinoo' ni trinity
tripe
noo'óééyoó ni tripe
tripod
neneesó'ohtéénoo ni tripod
triumph
hóó3onéíhi- vai 1) to triumph over a challenge, resist successfully, 2) to be undefeatable
trot
seséisínohuuhéí- vai to ride on a horse at a trot
trouble
ceténowóhoetí- vai 1) to hurt oneself accidentally, 2) to get oneself into trouble
ceténowoo- vai to get oneself into trouble
trousers
wótoo ni 1) pants, trousers, leggings, 2) (pl.) underwear, panties
trout
kokóunówo' na trout
truck
cébno3éénotii ni truck, freight train
bííno3éénotii ni truck
cébno3éénotii ni truck
true
hee3óóbeenéét- vti to believe in s.t., consider s.t. true
hí3obeéé- vii to be correct, be saying something true
hí3oobéí- vai to be correct, say something true
hí3oowúúhu' adv in a real or true manner
hi3oobéé- vii 1) to be correct, right, 2) to be true
hee3óóbeenéé- vii to be true
truly
hee3nee- pv 1) very, 2) true, truly
héé3neenííhi' adv truly
truthful
xóuuwúnihíí- vai to speak in a straight, proper, truthful way
try
néyei- pv conative, try
neyéi3ííhi' adv by trying, with effort
nih'óunéé- vai to keep trying something, be persistant
néyei3ib- vta to try s.o. out, try and see if s.o. will do something
néyei3ítoo- vai to try to do something
néyei3ítii- vai to try to do something
níh'ooní- vai to try hard at something
tube
kokíy ni 1) tube, 2) whistle (traditional type), 3) gun, rifle
tuberculosis
woxo'óót ni tuberculosis
woxó'oo- vai to have tuburculosis
Tuesday
níísnonóóke' ni Tuesday
niiscowo'óó' ni Tuesday
ceeséy nonóóke' ni Tuesday
tundra
tonoxtééni' vii 1) there is a cave, there is an opening in the earth, 2) there is a meadow or clearing in the forest, 3) there is a tundra area beyond the forest
turkey vulture
ceyótowúúnii'éíhii na turkey vulture
turkey
beescénee na 1) turkey, 2) extended to a exotic large birds such as ostriches
turn off
bih'ínkuutii- vai to turn a light off
tou'kúútii- vai to turn something off (e.g. water)
hóótonéén- vti to turn the heat off
turn on
césiskúútii- vai 1) to throw something, 2) to turn on something (e.g. a radio) or start something up (e.g. a motor)
noh'óéseikúútii- vai to turn a light on
nihkúútii- vai to turn something on (e.g. water)
turn
hííneenííhi' adv by turning around, in a turning around manner
híínee- pv turning around, reversing direction
híte3síne- vai to be the one whose turn has come
ko'éísee- vai to turn around (while walking)
hiinéésee- vai to turn, turn around
turned
céibííhi' adv 1) turned aside, to the side, 2) in a twisted manner, in a crooked manner
turnip
nonookúce'éé' ni turnip
turtle
be'énoo ni 1) fog, 2) turtle
bee3o'oubéét ni turtle shell
tusk
héétookú3 ni tusk
tweezers
kó'unbiisétneeyoo ni tweezers
twelve
béteetox níísiiní num twelve
twenty
niisóó' num twenty
twice
niis particle twice
twilight
biih'inóu'oo' ni twilight
twin
heeniisóóneenóú'u vii 1) there are two of them, there is a pair, 2) there are twins
niisóó na twin
twine
hotóóneewohoonónook ni twine
twinkle
ceeceeséinoo'óó- vai to twinkle
twist one's nose
ceibii3oon- vta to twist s.o.'s beak or nose
twisted
céibííhi' adv 1) turned aside, to the side, 2) in a twisted manner, in a crooked manner
twister
neyoooxét ni 1) twister, tornado, whirlwind, dust devil, 2) caterpillar
twitch
nih'oowkúútii- vai to twitch, move or flap (e.g. one's ears)
tesínoo'óó- vai to twitch
two
heeniisóóneenóú'u vii 1) there are two of them, there is a pair, 2) there are twins
niisoonei'i vii 1) (pl.) there are two, 2) (pl.) they are of two types, two kinds
niisóóneenóó' vii it has two parts, two components
niiseenou'u vii (pl.) they are of two different types
níisí- vai to be two in number
níísneníí- vai to be two in number, be a group of two
niis num two
heenéiite' particle two by two
type
cih'o3ónkúú3ei- vai to type
typewriter
cih'o3ónkuu3óó ni typewriter

U

udder
níí3ouyóó ni udder
ugly
woxéíhi- vai 1) to be bad, mean, 2) to be ugly
Wooxu'eihi3i' na (pl.) one of four bands identified by Kroeber, said by Kroeber to have been around Cantonment, OK
umbilical cord
bé3in ni-dep 1) belly button, 2) umbilical cord
umbrella
toukóóhowoot ni 1) lean-to, 2) porch, 3) umbrella
unable to reach
cooníítetén- vta to be unable to reach or get to s.o.
unable
coon- pv to be unable to do something
hoo3óntii- vai to be unable to manage something
uncle
neisónoo na-dep my father, my uncle
nési na-dep uncle, mother's brother
uncover
biscitíí- vai 1) to dig up, uncover, 2) to recover or revive something
koonóóyo'ún- vta to uncover s.o. (e.g. take blankets off)
undefeatable
hóó3onéíhi- vai 1) to triumph over a challenge, resist successfully, 2) to be undefeatable
under water
hi3óóbeceií particle under water
hi3oobecííhi' particle under water
under
ceenííhi' adv down, under
underground
hi3óóbesííhi' adv underground
hi3oowówu' particle underground
underneath
hi3óóbe' particle underneath
underpants
hi3óóbewotóóho ni (pl.) underpants
understand
he'ín- vti 1) to know s.t., understand s.t., 2) to keep s.t. in mind, remember s.t.
nííton- vta to hear s.o., understand s.o.
xooxouuwóóte'ín- vti to really understand s.t.
undress
néé3ibíí- vai to undress
nehéé3ei- vai to undress
nehéé3ein- vta to undress s.o.
unexpectedly
koxúúte' particle 1) suddenly, 2) unexpectedly, 3) sometimes
hííwo' particle unexpectedly, contrary to expectation
unfold
siicen- vta to unfold s.o. (anim. obj.)
siicén- vti to unfold s.t.
unite
wóóhonísee- vai to join a group, unite, come together
hiniito'éíbetí- vai to unite in a long stable relationship, establish a relationship
united
wóóhon- pv together, united
wóóhonéíhi- vai to be united, be a group, be together
unkempt
wotóxoobéíhi- vai 1) to be dirty, filthy, 2) to be unkempt
woowoyóte'éí- vai to have unkempt hair
unpack
heenétoonó3ei- vai to unpack
heenetéyei- vai to unpack
unpredictable
cee'nónootéíhi- vai to be unpredictable
cee'nónoo3óó' vii to be unpredictable
unscrew
hóókooto'óh- vti to unscrew s.t.
cesyoo'óh- vti to unscrew s.t.
untie
hookun- vti 1) to untie s.t., unlace s.t. , 2) to loosen a knot
hookun- vta 1) to untie, unlace (anim. obj.), 2) to loosen a knot
until
hónoot particle until
untoward
kóhtowúúni' vii there is something amiss, untoward
unusual
kóhtobéíhi- vai to be funny, strange, unusual
unwilling
níí3eenébi- vai to be unwilling
up to
no'úúhu' adv to here, up to a point or place
up
hihcébe' particle 1) above, up, 2) in heaven
bis- pv up, out
nóho'húúhu' adv up, upwards
híhcoo'óó- vai to be heading upwards
híhcitóóbe' particle up in the air
hihcíniihííhi' adv upriver, upstream
hih- pv up, upwards
uphill
nóho'úsee- vai to walk upwards, uphill
upright
xoubeekúú- vai 1) to be erect, 2) stand straight, upright
xoubeekúú- vii to be erect, stand upright
xóuubéíhi- vai to be straight, upright
3óó'oekúútii- vai to stick something upright in the ground
upslope
noxúutéí' 1) upwards (upslope), upstream, 2) in the west, westwards
noxúutéinííhi' adv 1) upslope, upstream, 2) in or to the west
upstairs
tééxo'oowú' ni upstairs room
upstream
noxúutéinííhi' adv 1) upslope, upstream, 2) in or to the west
noxúutéí' 1) upwards (upslope), upstream, 2) in the west, westwards
noxúutéíxoh- vta 1) to take s.o. upstream, 2) to take s.o. westwards
upwards
nóho'úsee- vai to walk upwards, uphill
nóho'húúhu' adv up, upwards
nóho'úhcéhí- vai to go upwards quickly, run or jump upwards
urge
neníísib- vta to urge s.o.
urinate
seiikóóhu- vai to urinate
3i'isóó- vai to urinate
urine
séiit ni urine
use
tonóún- vta to use s.o.
tonóún- vti to use s.t.
hííyoo3tonóún- vti to use s.t. cleanly, properly or respectfully
nóhktonóún- vti to use s.t. in conjunction with something else
used to
nóo3ííton- vta to be or get accustomed to s.o.
nóo3ínoo'oo- vai to have gotten used to something or someone
useful
hííxonih- vta 1) to be useful to s.o., 2) to do s.o. a favor
híínoxónoh'oehííni- vai to be a useful boy
hííxonéíhi- vai to be useful
useless
woowotóx particle in vain, uselessly
usher in
nóókoníitén- vti 1) to clear the way for s.t., 2) usher in s.t. (as in a ceremony)
usher
he'neexó3eihii na guide, usher
uside down
hoo3tone'einóótee- vii to be upside down
hoo3tone'einouu3i- vai to be upside down
Utah
Wo'tééneihí' placename Utah
Ute
wó'oteenéhiisóó na Ute child
wó'oteenéhiinén na Ute man
woo'tééneiht na Ute person
wó'oteenéhiitéén ni Ute tribe
wo'otéénehísei na Ute woman
uvula
hótoowkúútoot ni uvula

V

vaccinate
koxukóh- vta 1) to pierce, stab s.o., 2) to vaccinate s.o., give s.o. an injection
vaccination
koxúkohú- vai to get a vaccination, get an injection
vain
woowotóx particle in vain, uselessly
value
tóónonítii- vai 1) to hold on to something (figuratively), 2) to value something, cherish something
vanish
hííyoohóú' vii 1) to be nothing, for there to be none of something, 2) to disappear, vanish
híyoohootínoo'oo- vai to disappear suddenly, be absent, vanish
vapor
xóúú'oo- vii to give off smoke, steam or vapor
various colors
ce'es3óó'ooyóó- vii to be of varying or changing colors, as an oil slick in the sun
various
cé'esííhi' adv 1) different, 2) diverse, various
cé'eis- pv different, various
heenéí'isííhi' adv 1) various kinds, 2) and so forth, and similarly, et cetera, 3) ones like that
cé'es3ootoo- vai to do various things
Vaseline
seencéí ni petrolium jelly, Vaseline
ko'óéyoó ni petrolium jelly, Vaseline
veal
wóó'oséíno' ni veal
vegetable
cééyowciinéyoono ni (pl.) vegetables
vehicle
hotíí na 1) wheel, either on a vehicle or a sacred ceremonial object, such as a stone wheel structure, as in the Bighorn Mountains, 2) vehicle with wheels (e.g. car, wagon), 3) a game implement shaped like a wheel
vein
be'íb na vein, artery
veiny dock
honesiihuut veiny dock, scientific name Rumex venosus
vengeance
nooxohéénowóó- vai to take vengeance
nooxóheen- vta to take vengeance on s.o.
very
sii- proclitic intensifier, really, a lot, very
noxow- pv 1) very (intensifier), 2) barely, 3) just now
tees- pv 1) on top of, 2) very, most
sii- pv very, really
hee3nee- pv 1) very, 2) true, truly
tes- pv very
vest
teebi3e'íneenoo' ni vest
vicious
nonoxootéíhi- vai to be mean, vicious
victory dance
ce'eetíít ni victory dance
view
hóónowóótookú'oo- vai to have a good view of something, as a spectator
village
hííteen ni 1) village, 2) tribe
vine
bííteiséénook na vine
violet
hetehíbe'éé- vii to be violet
virgin
beebéíhit na virgin
tenéítoonéíht na virgin
visible
he'íneeyóó- vii 1) to be visible, 2) to be obvious
he'íneeyoo adv in a visible or obvious way
ho3esóó- vii to be in plain sight, visible
nóóhobéíhiinoo- vii to be visible
nóóhobéíhi- vai to be visible
vision quest
betéésibí- vai to go on a vision quest and fast
visit
no'ucéítoon- vta to arrive to visit s.o.
céítoon- vta to visit s.o.
visitor
ceitéíhii na guest, visitor
céíteenén na visitor
voice
heenetíít ni 1) language, 2) speech, 3) voice
cooniiséíhi- vai to have a hoarse voice
beesiiséíhi- vai to have a loud voice
ni'iiséíhi- vai to have a nice voice
vomit
bé3ee- vai to vomit
be3óot ni vomit
vote
beséyei- vai 1) to vote, 2) to vote affirmatively
besénowuun- vta to vote for s.o.
vow
hóókoonéyei- vai to make a vow
hóókoonéyeih- vta to make a vow for the benefit of s.o.
hóókoonéyoó ni vow
vulture
woxóóxobe'- pv relating to buzzards, vultures
hécesóúhuu na vulture
vulva
beehééc ni, ni-dep vulva

W

wade
hiinokéee- vai to wade across
tokooxuunokeéee- vai to wade across
hokéeekón- to wade across or cross a river as a group
wag
nih'oowoonineekúúhu- vai to wag one's tail
nih'oowóónineekoohú- vai to wag one's tail
wage
ceestóó- vai to work for wages
waist
híco'ok na waist
wait
hónonihéíhiinóó- vii (a gift, special power or knowledge) to be waited for patiently
howóho'óé vai (imperative) wait!
né'ee vai (imperative) wait!
cowouubéíhi- vai to wait
toyoohóób- vta to wait for s.o.
cowóuuwúh- vta to wait for s.o., wait on s.o.
cowouuwútii- vai to wait for something
cowóuubéíhi- vai to wait, wait for something to happen
toyoohóót- vti to wait for s.t.
wake
howóten- vta to rouse s.o., wake s.o. up
howóto'óó- vai to wake up
walk around
hiinísee- vai to walk around aimlessly, wander around
hiintísee- vai to walk around the edge of something (e.g. an obstacle)
walk away
neyéisxóótiini' vii people are walking away and leaving
neyéisísee- vai to walk away from one another, separate
walk back
ce'ísee- vai to walk back
walk down
hinowúsee- vai to walk out of sight below a surface, disappear into the ground, dive into water
walk far
ceníisee- vai to walk far
walk out
noúúsee- vai to walk out of a place or area
walk to the back
nohkníicibísee- vai to walk to the back or rear with someone
walk up
nóh'ohúsee- vai to walk uphill, walk upwards
walk
yihóó- vai to go to a place, walk to a place
cebísee- vai to pass by, go by, walk by
níicibísee- vai to walk to the back, walk to the rear
nih'inéésee- vai to walk fast
wotéísee- vai to walk noisily, make noise while walking
nííteiséé- vai to walk in single file, march
kóxo'úsee- vai to walk slowly
nóho'úsee- vai to walk upwards, uphill
wotéésee- vai 1) to walk into a crowd, camp or gathering, 2) to walk into the center
bíítobeenííhi' adv on foot, by walking
nóuutowúsee- vai to keep on walking, be walking continuously
hooxuusee- vai to walk across
ce'íkotíít- vti to walk back to s.t.
ciisísee- vai to walk far
bíítobee- vai to walk, go on foot
cetéésee- vai to walk in many directions
no'óetísee- vai to walk in the direction of a river or water
no'oteineesee- vai to walk loudly
síí'ihinowúsee- vai to walk out of sight into the water
koxtísee- vai to walk over a hill to the other side
xookúsee- vai to walk through something
níhi'néésee- vai walk quickly
héé3ebísee- vai walk to there, walk over there
wander
hiinísee- vai to walk around aimlessly, wander around
hííno'úsee- vai to come wandering to a place
want
kookóós- pv modal preverb, hope, want, 'I wish that...'
beet- pv modal preverb, want to
béétoh- pv modal preverb, want to
níiíb- vta to want s.o. (anim. obj.)
níiit- vti to want s.t.
War Club Lodge
ce'ééxunen na member of the Tomahawk Lodge or War Club Lodge
3óokés ni war club
war cry
'óohéí particle a war cry, used when striking a blow, counting coup, or scalping someone
war
bóó3etíít ni fighting, war, battle
warbler
níhooníí'ehíhi' na any small yellow bird such as a yellow warbler or goldfinch
warbonnet
woté' ni 1) hat, 2) women's warbonnet
kokóóhowóó- vai to possess and/or wear a warbonnet
noonoo'óééyookuu ni warbonnet
kokóóhowóót ni warbonnet with a trailer
warm
hóókuu'óó- vii to thaw, warm up
hookúúno'óó' vii it has warmed up (e.g. after a cold day)
hiisóówu- vii (liquid) to be warm
hookuusiini- vii to be a warm day after a cold day
hiisiinoo'oo- vai to be warm
híísiiyóó- vii to be warm (e.g. weather or in a room)
hiisiino'on- vta to warm s.o. up
hookúúsiiní- vii to warm up (e.g. after a cold day)
warn
néstoobéé- vai to have been warned
néstoobee'i- vai to warn people about something
néstoob- vta to warn s.o.
warpath
notíkoní- vai 1) to scout for enemies, 2) to be on the warpath
warrior
notkóniinén na 1) scout, 2) warrior
wart
hi3ii3ííbi- vai to have warts
be3íi3 na-dep wart
wash
hehííse3ei- vai to do the wash, do laundry
hehíísii'oúhu- vai to wash one's face
hehíísoonoúhu- vai to wash one's feet
hehíís3ee3ouhu- vai to wash one's hands
hehíisebetí- vai to wash oneself
hehííseb- vta to wash s.o.
hehíístii- vai to wash something
washbasin
hehíísio'huunooó ni washbasin
washing machine
hehiisé3oó ni washing machine
washtub
hehiisé3einooó ni washtub
wasp
kóho'ok na bee, wasp, yellowjacket, hornet
watch out
hóónoyoohóo3éí'i- vai to watch out for things, be on guard
watch over
hééteniih- vta 1) to protect s.o., 2) to take care of s.o., 3) to watch over s.o.
néí'oonoyóóhob- vta to watch over s.o. closely, guard s.o. closely
watch
biisíínowóó3it- vti acquire a skill or ceremony by watching others carefully
hoonoyoohowun- vta keep an eye on s.o.
hoonoyoohoot- vta keep an eye on s.t.
biisíínowoot ni act of watching something closely in order to learn about it (e.g. a ceremony or skill which one wants to acquire)
biisíínowoo- vai to learn something for oneself by watching closely
biisíínowóót vti watch s.t. closely in order to learn about it (e.g. a ceremony or skill which one wants to acquire)
hite'íyooní- vai to have a watch or clock
hoonoyoohóót- vti 1) to watch s.t., 2) to guard s.t.
hoonoyóóhob- vta to watch s.o., guard s.o.
biisíínobéé- vai to watch an event carefully in order to learn about it and be able to do it for oneself
hesoohob- vta to watch s.o., observe s.o.
hésookú'oo- vai 1) to watch something, 2) to watch things carefully, observe intensely
nííhookú'oot ni act of watching an event closely
hesóóhobéíhi- vai to be watched closely
hónowóótookú'oo- vai to have a good time watching something
hesoohóót- vti to watch s.t.
hoonoyoohóótowuun- vta to watch something for s.o.
water birch
hówoo'úúbiis ni water birch, scientific name Betula fontinalis
water dipper
nóókohóé ni 1) water dipper, 2) medicine switch, 3) bucket
water dog
koohoyéít na salamander, water dog
water moccasin
wo'teensiisiiyei na water moccasin, cottonmouth
wó'oteensíísííyei na water moccasin
water snake grass
néciibéíko' ni water snake grass
water sprinkling old men
ciinécei beh'ííhoho' na (pl.) water sprinkling old men, the last in system of the age-grade societies
water
necííni- vii 1) to be wet, 2) there is water
cííhkoowu' ni clear water
hiiyóótoowu' vii (water) to be pure
hoosoonéc ni rainwater
coo'óowúse' ni 1) body of water, 2) puddle
sii'ih- pv motion into water
nouu3íne- vai to be in water
seyookóóno3éí- vai to water (?e.g. plants)
bénohóóxobei- vai to water horses, give water to horses
seyookóónetíí- vai to water something
nec ni water
waterfall
néc ceeníse' ni waterfall
heetceníse' ni waterfall
watermelon
nooxowóúhut na watermelon
way
hiisóho' particle this way, like this
tousííhi' particle which way?
néé'eeséé- vii that is the way it goes
weak
coonóuwuhetí- vai to be weak
wealthy
hóno'útonéíhi- vai 1) to be whole, 2) to to be very wealthy
bio'nó'oo- vai to be rich, wealthy
weapon
hítonóó3ee- vai to take along weapons
wear buckskin
nisicíhinínouhúút ni the act or custom of wearing buckskin clothes
nisicíhinínouhu- vai to wear buckskin
wear feathers
hinóókuu- vai to have feathers on one's head, wear feathers on one's head
wear
héíxo'owúú- vai to be wearing something
héíx- vti to wear s.t.
héixon- vta to wear something animate (e.g. hinów, red paint)
weasel
seihon na weasel
weather
ni'iisooo- vii to be good weather
neenéísiisooó' ni weather
neenéísiihóho ni weather
weave
nóónoyootééyei'i- vai (a spider) to weave a web
nii3ootééyei- vai to weave
wohunootéén- vti to weave s.t.
webbed
se'eihtee- vai 1) to have flat feet, 2) to have webbed feet
Wednesday
nééso nonóóke' ni Wednesday
neesocówo'oo' Wednesday
niis nonóóke' ni Wednesday
weep
biiwóóhu- vai to cry, weep
weird
cee'ínoyoo- vii to be strange, queer, weird
welcome
wóóukohéi exclamation welcome!
well
'íne particle 1) yes, 2) ok, well
'ínehouú particle 1) yes, 2) ok, well
ni'- pv good, well
hooxéb ni 1) spring (source of water), 2) fountain, 3) well
híínentééni- vai 1) to be well, cured from an ilness, 2) to be saved
ni'ítoo- vai 1) to do something well, 2) to be able to do something
wohéí particle 1) greeting, "well!", 2) narrative particle, well, ok, yes
tous particle well then, so then, okay then
nihíí particle hesitation particle, used similarly to English "well..."
ní'eenéineyóó3ei- vai to make people feel well
west
noxúutéíxoh- vta 1) to take s.o. upstream, 2) to take s.o. westwards
noxúutéinííhi' adv 1) upslope, upstream, 2) in or to the west
noxúutéí' 1) upwards (upslope), upstream, 2) in the west, westwards
noxúutííhi' adv in the west
níítne'íseet na the west
híhcowoonóú'u' west
westwards
hihcíniho'oo- vai to go westwards
wet
necííni- vii 1) to be wet, 2) there is water
hiixookóónee- vai to be completely wet
necííni- vai to be wet
séi3etí- vai to wet oneself
sei'óóbe- vai to wet the bed
what
hee3- pv how, why, what
heesííni vii how it is, what it is like
héesóó- vii how it is, what it is like
néé'ees- pv that is how, that is what, thus
tóús- pv what, how (interrogative)
hiis- pv what, how (relative)
heeyóu particle what?, what is it?
wheat
ciinóuutono ni (pl.) applied to various crops that are planted such as grain (including wheat, rye) or vegetables
3o'ohóeeno ni 1) flour, 2) wheat
wheel
ko'einoohtóó na 1) wheel, 2) tire
hotíí na 1) wheel, either on a vehicle or a sacred ceremonial object, such as a stone wheel structure, as in the Bighorn Mountains, 2) vehicle with wheels (e.g. car, wagon), 3) a game implement shaped like a wheel
hoseihoowunotii na Sun Dance Wheel
when
toh- pv when, because, after
tohuu- pv when, because, after (habitual aspect)
hei'- pv 1) when (RELATIVE), 2) once (something has occurred)
tih- pv when (imperfective), since
né'nii'- pv that is when (cleft)
tou'úúhu' particle when
tóú'- pv when (interrogative)
nii'- pv when (relative clause)
whenever
tóónei'ííhi' adv sometime, whenever
where
néé'eetísee- vai that is where someone is coming from
néé'eetéíhi- vai that is where someone is from
néé'eet- pv that is where
néé'eetóu- vii that is where it is located, where it is at
né'niit- pv that's where (cleft)
hiit- pv where
héétoh- pv where
toot- pv where (interrogative)
tootóu vii where is it?
téétee where is (s.o.)?
héet- pv where (relative)
niit- pv where (relative clause)
héetoo- vai where someone is
héetéíhi- vai where someone is from (relative)
níitoo- vai where someone is located or staying (habitually or generally)
wherever
heeneetoh- vai wherever someone is (used with iterative)
whetstone
tóxu'use3óo ni whetstone
which
tousííhi' particle which way?
while
cisííni- vai to take a certain time to do something, take a while
cis- pv a duration of time, length of time, a while
kou3ííhi' particle after a little while, a little while later
héécis- pv while
whimper
hiini- vai (a dog, wolf, coyote) to cry, whimper, howl
whine
bixóne'étii- vai 1) to whine, whimper, cry, 2) to cry as in mourning
whinny
teenéi3íbetí- vai (horses) to neigh or whinny back and forth to each other
whip
niskohóe ni switch, whip, quirt
niscíbes ni switch, whip
nisíkoh- vta to whip s.o., switch s.o.
niskóhei- vai to whip, switch
Whirlwind Woman
Neyooxetisei na Whirlwind Woman
whirlwind
neyoooxét ni 1) twister, tornado, whirlwind, dust devil, 2) caterpillar
whisker
biisétinoo ni whisker
whiskey
nih'óó3ounéc ni liquor, any kind of hard alcohol (e.g. whiskey)
whisper
hííbineeyéíti- vai to whisper
whistle
níitóuu3óó ni 1) whistle, 2) flute, 3) bugle
kokíy ni 1) tube, 2) whistle (traditional type), 3) gun, rifle
híxonokokúy ni bone whistle
nísihiinííhi' adv in a whistling manner
nísihíí- vai to whistle
nisihííb- vta to whistle at s.o.
níitóuuhu3- vta to whistle at s.o.
níitóuut- vti to whistle at s.t.
níitóuu3éí'i- vai to whistle at things
hohookeenikokuy ni whistle used in the Crazy Lodge dance
white hair
nooké'ei'óó- vai to have hair that is turning white
nooké'ei- vai to have white hair
white man
nih'óó3oo na 1) spider, 2) white man (person), Caucasian, 3) a trickster figure in Arapaho mythology
white owl
nookubee3ei na 1) white owl, 2) used figuratively to refer to snowy weather or frost
white
nookóe'éí- vai to have white hair
nook- pv white, light
nih'óó3ounííhi' adv in the way or manner of white people
noocóó- vii to be white
nookéíhi- vai to be white
hinookó3oni- vai to have a white rump
nookúnoo'óó- vii to turn white, become white
white-tailed deer
hé3owoonéíhii na white-tailed deer
who
henee' particle who?
hénee' who is it?
whole
behííhi' adv all, entirely, as a whole
hóno'útonéíhi- vai 1) to be whole, 2) to to be very wealthy
béíso- vii to be whole
hóno'útoyoo- vii to be whole
why
hee3- pv how, why, what
toúsooti' particle why?
tou3eenííhi' particle why?
nohtóu particle why?
nii3ee- pv why (habitual, imperfective aspect)
nii3- pv why (habitual, imperfective aspect)
tóú3ee- pv why (interrogative)
híí3ee- pv why (relative)
néé3ee- pv that's why (cleft)
wide
tó'obéé- vii to be wide
heebe3íse'éé- vii to be wide
beestó'obéé- vii to be wide
heebe3tó'obeihi- vai to be wide
tó'obeihi- vai to be wide
cííxoyóó- vii to be wide (and long)
widow
hííniibiiséí na widow
widower
hííniibiinén na widower
wife
hiníín na his wife
niini- vai to have a wife
netesíh'e na-dep wife
wild horse
néseinóóx na wild horse
wild
neséíhiinóó- vii to be wild (in a pejorative sense), crazy
néseihiinííne'étii- vai 1) to live in the wild, live with or in contact with nature, 2) to live as lived prior to reservation days
neséíhi- vai 1) to be wild, 2) to be in union with nature
willow shelter
nii3oe'ínowoo- vai to make a willow shelter (e.g. coo'oeyóó) for oneself
willow
co'óe'ín- vti to make s.t. out of willows, e.g. a brush shelter
boo'óóceiyóókuu' ni peachleaf willow, scientific name Salix amigdaloides
yóókox ni willow shrub or tree, scientific name Salix spp.
wilt
necikou'óó- vii to wilt
win
hoyóó3- vta to win against s.o., beat s.o. in a contest
hoyéí- vai to win
Wind River
hóteiniicíe ni Big Wind River
wind
neyoooxetiineesé' ni tornado wind
xooxo'oese' vii 1) wind is blowing, 2) spring is in the air
toyo3eese- vii a cold wind to blow
ceneneese' vii the wind is dying down
honeesi- vii to be blown over by wind
no'óteesé- vii to be very windy
heséisén ni wind
no'éése- vii (wind) to start to blow
window
noh'eihóó ni 1) window, 2) skylight
windy
heseisé- vii to be windy
wine
biinínec ni chokecherry juice, chokecherry wine
niscínec ni wine (sweet commercial wine)
wing
heenei3é'enoo- vai to have wings
sei'3e'íwoo3íí- vai to spread one's wings
hi3é' ni wing
wink
kóó'ookúhcehi- vai to wink
kóó'ookúhcehííton- vta to wink at s.o.
winter hawk
cecnóhuu na applied to several types of hawk such as goshawk, winter hawk, rough-legged hawk, harrier
winter
cec ni winter, year
ceciini' vii to be winter
cecinsíne- vai to pass the winter, spend the winter in camp
wintertime
cecinííhi' adv in the wintertime
wipe one's eyes
hóhookúnetí- vai to wipe one's eyes
wipe
hóhookú- vai to wipe an eye or eyes
hehín- vta to wipe s.o., wipe s.o. off (anim. obj.)
hehín- vti to wipe s.t., wipe s.t. off
wire cutter
koxoééyooó ni wire cutter
wire
coowooceiise' ni 1) wire, 2) fence made from wire
wise
he'éíhi- vai 1) to be knowledgeable, smart, wise, 2) to be sane, of sound mind
wish
koos- proclitic 'I wish that ...'
with
hi'- pv instrumental, with, by means of, about
hi'ííhi' particle 1) instrumental, with, 2) about, concerning
nííso'- pv 1) with, jointly, acting together, 2) mixed
nii3- pv with, along with, jointly
nohkúúhu' adv with (as in keeping something with one)
nohk- pv with, comitative (e.g. kept with a person, carried along with a person)
within
cii3ííhi' adv inside, within
without
ní'iicííni adv 1) without, 2) not using something
wolf
hooxéíhiinéniinohwóót ni Wolf Dance, Pawnee Dance
heebetóóxei na big wolf
hóóxei na wolf
wolverine
hoho'nookeewox na wolverine
séihíwox na wolverine
tóóxu'óókuteet na wolverine
woman
hinóno'úsei na Arapaho woman
betebih'ehíhi', betébihíhi' na little old woman (diminutive)
betebihíísei na old woman
bééseséí- vai to be a grown woman
hísei na 1) woman, 2) queen (in playing cards)
betébi na old woman
hiséíni- vai to be a woman
wood
béxo ni (pl.) firewood
beséee- vai to gather wood
be3e'íbes ni hardwood
bes ni 1) wood, piece of wood, 2) stick, rod
hisíteenes ni charred wood
woodchuck
beexóni' na 1) woodchuck, rockchuck, 2) marmot
woodpecker
béé'e'éít na red-headed woodpecker
kookóóxee na woodpecker
tónohou3éíhii na woodpecker, esp. hairy or downy woodpeckers
woods
neeyéíci' ni forest, woods
hiikóó' ni 1) woods , 2) brush
wool
hicíínee ni fleece, wool, cotton
hóteicííneenó' ni (pl.) sheep wool
word
nihíít ni 1) word, 2) saying, phrase
work
nííston- vta 1) to serve s.o., 2) to work for s.o., 3) to make something for s.o.
niisí3ei- vai to have a job, work
niisí3oó ni job, labor, work
nó'oxúuhetí- vai to get oneself to a place by hard work, with difficulty
neetó'osíbetí- vai to work or run oneself to exhaustion
ceestóó- vai to work for wages
nóótoxuúni- vai to work hard
worker
niisí3eihii na worker
workhorse
hítoohounóóx na workhorse
world
hee3éí'o'béé' ni world
worm
beexoubíísee na worm
wormwood
ciwoniinóókhoosé' field sagewort, wormwood, scientific name Artemisia campestris
worn
bee3íse- vii 1) to be worn out, 2) to have run out, be all gone
worry
noxú3ecoo- vai to worry
noxú3ecóóh- vta to worry someone, cause someone worry
worship
hówoo'oo- vai to pray, worship
betééntoo- vai to do sacred things, to engage in a ritual, to worship
worship
hówoo'óót ni worship, prayer, act of worshipping or praying
hówoo'oo- vai to worship
would
héíh- pv potential, could have, would have
nih'et- pv 1) would, would have, 2) was supposed to, 3) were going to
wounded
hiníísiiní- vai to be wounded
wow
'ííheihóó, exclamation exclamation of surprise, gee!, wow!
yehéíhoo exclamation exclamation of surprise, "gee!," "wow!," "isn't that something!"
wrap
niisén- vti 1) to wrap s.t., 2) to cover s.t. up
niisén- vta to wrap s.o. (anim. obj.)
wrench
cesíiiyóó ni wrench
cesyoo'óhoéé ni wrench
wrestle
hoonónkuutéhib- vta to wrestle with s.o.
wrinkle
wówe'éí- vai 1) to have a wrinkled face, 2) to have a face that is out of shape
woowóóhonó'oo- vii to be wrinkled
koon'oeht ni wrinkle
wrist
wonó' ni-dep 1) ankle, 2) wrist
write s.t.
wo3onóh- vti to draw s.t., write s.t.
write
3óók3onóh- vti to copy s.t. (e.g. off a blackboard)
wo3onóhei- vai to draw, write
wo3ónohéíhiinóó- vii to be written
wó3onóhowuun- vta to write to s.o.
wrong
nóntoo- vai 1) to make a mistake, do something wrong, 2) to be wrong, do wrong
ceyótobee- vii to be false
woxútoo- vai 1) to do something wrong, do something bad, 2) to sin
nónoyoo- vii to be wrong
nonínihíí- vai to say the wrong thing
wrongly
noni- pv wrongly

X

Xerox
wo3ónkuu3óó ni copy machine, Xerox machine
x-ray
3ook3onínoo'óó- vai to get an x-ray
3ook3ónkuutíí- vai to take an x-ray

Y

yarn
wohoonínook ni string, thread, yarn
yarrow
no'óutíhii ni yarrow, scientific name Achillea lanulosa
yawn
nókooníí- vai to yawn
year
cec ni winter, year
tíhceciinííni' particle last year
hoo3cecííni'éhk particle next year
yeast
nisonóxoh'óe ni leavening agent such as baking powder or yeast
yell
niitóuub- vta to holler, yell at s.o.
níitóuuhu- vai 1) to howl, holler, yell, 2) (a mouse) to squeak
níitóuuhu- vai (an animal) to make a noise such as howling or bugling, (a person) to holler, yell
yellow stonecrop
hóteibii3híít ni yellow stonecrop flower, scientific name Amerosedum lanceolatum
yellow
níhooyóó- vii to be yellow
níhoonéíhi- vai to be yellow
níhoonínoo'óó- vii to turn yellow
yellowjacket
kóho'ok na bee, wasp, yellowjacket, hornet
Yellowstone
Henihco'oo' placename Yellowstone National Park
Héetíhco'oo' placename Yellowstone National Park
yelp
tooyéíto- vai to yelp
yes
wohéí particle 1) greeting, "well!", 2) narrative particle, well, ok, yes
'íne particle 1) yes, 2) ok, well
'ínehouú particle 1) yes, 2) ok, well
yeoh particle yes, indeed, you bet
hee particle yes
'oo exclamation yes
yesterday
hónohúbe' tih'íísiini' ni the day before yesterday
nííto' tih'íísiini' ni the day before yesterday
tih'íísiini' ni yesterday
yet
hééscii- pv before, while not yet
hóóno' particle not yet
yolk
nííhooyóó' ni 1) egg yolk, 2) banana
you
nenéénin pronoun you, second person sg. pronoun
young Arapaho
hinonó'eisóó na young Arapaho person
young girl
hécesísei- vai to be a young girl or woman
young person
téí'toononóh'oehíhi' na a young person on the boundary between childhood and boyhood, less than twelve
young
woon- pv 1) new, 2) young, 3) latest, most recent, last (e.g. day, week)
hecéxookéé- vai 1) to be a child, 2) to be young
woonootees na young person, often referring to someone in their teens
wonoonii'óót na young person, member of a younger generation
woonéíhi- vai 1) to be young, 2) to be new
honóh'oe na (male) adolescent, teenager, youth, young man
youth
hecéxonóh'oe na male youth
yucca
síínceneewoxú' ni yucca
sííceneewóxu' ni yucca, scientific name Yucca glauca, probably other Yucca spp.

Z

zenith
nii'tesíco'oúú3i' zenith, when the sun is at its zenith
zero
hoowúúni- vii to be nothing, zero
zinc
nookbéí'ci3e' ni zinc
zip
hoxkúh-d vai 1) to button up, 2) to zip up