Case paradigms of Ingush nouns

    Ingush nouns all take essentially the same case endings in the singular, but they fall into 15 declension classes based on changes in the stem to which the endings are attached.  The noun stem may undergo ablaut (vowel changes, with the nominative case having one vowel and the oblique cases another), and/or take an extension (a meaningless but obligatory suffix preceding the case ending) in the oblique cases.  The different combinations of ablaut and extensions define the 15 classes.  The declension class of a noun is not predictable from its gender or meaning.
    Noun stems have one of three different shapes (which influence phonological properties of the endings and/or extension):  consonant-final (e.g. kuotam 'hen', ber 'child'), vowel-final polysyllabic (maza 'louse', kuorta 'head'), and vowel-final monosyllabic (txa 'wool', loa 'snow').  Each declension class is illustrated with as many of these as it occurs with.  Classes with ablaut are illustrated with all of the known vowel alternations.

1 No change in stem vowel, no extension.
hen louse wool
Nominative kuotam maza txa
Genitive kuotama mazan txan
Dative kuotamaa mazaa txanaa
Ergative kuotamuo mazuo txavuo
Allative kuotamaga mazaga txaga
Instrumental kuotamaca mazaca txaca
Lative kuotamagh mazagh txagh
Comparison kuotamal mazal txal


2 Shortened vowel in nominative, corresponding long vowel elsewhere.
child window
Nominative ber kor
Genitive biera kuora
Dative bieraa kuoraa
Ergative bieruo / bieraz kuoruo
Allative bieraga kuoraga
Instrumental bieraca kuoraca
Lative bieragh kuoragh
Comparison bieral kuoral


3 Ablaut but no extension.
price moon head snow snow (alt.)
Nominative max butt kuorta loa loa
Genitive meaxa betta kerta lea lei
Dative meaxaa bettaa kertaa leana leina
Ergative meaxuo bettuo kertuo leaga leiga
Allative meaxaga bettaga kertaga leaga leiga
Instrumental meaxaca bettaca kertaca leaca leica
Lative meaxagh bettagh kertagh leagh leigh
Comparison meaxal bettal kertal leal leil


3x.   Partial ablaut.
father mother husband son God
Nominative daa naana maar vow Deala
Genitive dea neana meara viwii Deala
Dative deana nanna maaraa vowaa Dalla
Ergative daaz naanaz maaruo vowuo Daala
Allative deaga neanaga maaraga vowaga Dealaga
Instrumental deaca neanaca maaraca vowaca Dealaca
Lative deagh neanaga maaraga vowagh Dealagh
Comparison deal neanal maaral vowal Dealal

4.  Stem-final -ii / -ie-  and -uu / -uo-.
dog silver
Nominative zhwalii dotuu / -uo
Genitive zhwalie dotuo
Dative zhwaliena dotuona
Ergative zhwalie dotuo
Allative zhwaliega dotuoga
Instrumental zhwalieca dotuoca
Lative zhwalegh dotogh
Comparison zhwalel dotol


5.    Extension -aa- / -an-.
Nominative molla
Genitive mollaa
Dative mollanna/mollaana
Ergative mollaa/mollanuo/molluo
Allative mollaaga/mollanga
Instrumental mollaaca/mollanca
Lative mollaagh/mollagh
Comparison mollaal/mollal


6. -an- or -aa- extension and ablaut.
Nominative maaxa
Genitive meaxaa
Dative meaxanna
Ergative meaxuo
Allative meaxaaga
Instrumental meaxaaca
Lative meaxaagh
Comparison meaxaal


7.   -n- extension in all the oblique cases.
   world   branch    bullet
world branch bullet
Nominative dynie tq'ouruo pxo
Genitive dynen/dyniena tq'ouron/tq'ouruona pxon/pxona
Dative dynenna/dyniena tq'ouruona/tq'ouronna pxona/pxonna
Ergative dynienuo tq'ouruonuo pxonuo
Allative dynenga tq'ouronga pxonaga
Instrumental dynenca tq'ouronca pxonca
Lative dynienagh tq'ouruonagh pxonagh
Comparison dynienal tq'ouruonal pxonal


8.   -n- extension and ablaut.
room, house day light corner, angle
Nominative c'aa di sa sa
Genitive c'en den sin sean
Dative c'ienaa/c'enna denna sina seana
Ergative c'ienuo dienuo sinuo seanuo
Allative c'ienaga denga/dienaga singa seanaga
Instrumental c'ienaca denca/dienaca sinca seanaca
Lative c'ienagh dienagh sinagh seanagh
Comparison c'ienal dienal sinal seanal

9.  -chu- extension.  (In 'neighbor' below, -xuo(-chu-) is a derivational suffix.  'Truth' is a nominalized participle.
friend neighbor truth
Nominative dottagh loalaxuo baq'dar
Genitive dottaghchyn loalaxuochyn baq'dolchyn
Dative dottaghchynna/-choa loalaxuochynna/-choa baq'dolchynna/-choa
Ergative dottaghchuo loalaxuochuo baq'dolchuo
Allative dottaghchynga loalaxuochynga baq'dolchynga
Instrumental dottaghchynca loalaxuochynca baq'dolchynca
Lative dottaghchogh loalaxuochogh baq'dolchogh
Comparison dottaghchul loalaxuochul baq'dolchul

10.    -ar- extension and no ablaut.
Nominative zwok
Genitive zwokara
Dative zwokaraa
Ergative zwokaruo
Allative zwokaraga
Instrumental zwokaraca
Lative zwokaragh
Comparison zwokaral

11.   -ar- extension and ablaut.
axe sand fire
Nominative dig ghum c'i
Genitive dogara ghomara c'era
Dative dogaraa ghomaraa c'eraa
Ergative dogaruo ghomaruo c'eruo
Allative dogaraga ghomaraga c'eraga
Instrumental dogaraca ghomaraca c'eraca
Lative dogaragh ghomaragh c'eragh
Comparison dogaral ghomaral c'eral


12.  -nar- extension and ablaut.  There are two such words.
  steam link
steam link
Nominative wi zwy
Genitive wanara zwanara
Dative wanaraa zwanaraa
Ergative wanaruo zwanaruo
Allative wanaraga zwanaraga
Instrumental wanarca zwanaraca
Lative wanaragh zwanaragh
Comparison wanaral zwanaral


13.  -ii- extension (alternating regularly with -e- in closed syllables).
sister milk
Nominative jisha shura
Genitive jishii shurii
Dative jishiina shuriina
Ergative jishaz shuruo/shuriiv
Allative jishiiga shuriiga
Instrumental jishiica shuriica
Lative jishegh shuregh
Comparison jishel shurel


14.   -m extension.  There is one such word in the dictionary.
Nominative ka
Genitive kuoma
Dative kuomaa
Ergative kuomuo
Allative kuomaga
Instrumental kuomaca
Lative kuomagh
Comparison kuomal


15.   Initial j- drop.
cow melody
Nominative jett jish
Genitive watta aashara
Dative weattaa aasharaa
Ergative wattuo aasharuo
Allative wattaga aasharaga
Instrumental wattaca aasharaca
Lative wattagh aasharagh
Comparison wattal aasharal