Ingush verb conjugation

    Ingush verbs inflect for tense, aspect, and sometimes number categories.  A sizable minority of them also agree in gender with the intransitive subject or transitive object.  All verbs have essentially the same inflectional endings but have different patterns of ablaut of their stem vowels. The regular verbs fall into 16 ablaut classes. There are three ablaut grades or stem forms: the infinitive stem (used in infinitive, verbal noun, and negative forms), the present stem (used in present, imperfect, and future tenses and converbs), and the past stem (used in the witnessed and non-witnessed past tenses, the pluperfect, and anterior converbs).   The 16-class system given here is designed for practical and pedagogical purposes, and sets up a separate class for each alternating set of vowel phonemes. It is based on Handel 2003, where a more sophisticated linguistic analysis is given and fewer classes are set up.

    In the verb paradigms below, ä is a cover symbol for what was once an independent vowel in Ingush and is still optionally pronounced by the older generation as an [e] vowel which (unlike the vowel written e here) does not palatalize a preceding consonant; for the younger generation it has mostly merged with a.
    A dot after a word-initial d, as in d.ieshar 'read', means that the first consonant is an alternating gender agreement prefix.  (The d gender form is the traditional citation form.)

Regular verbs
Class Infinitive stem Present stem Past stem
Verbal noun Infinitive Present Present converb Witnessed past Anterior converb
1 read d.ieshar d.iesha d.esh d.ieshazh d.iishar d.iishaa
2 beat d.ettar d.etta d.ett d.ettazh d.iittar d.iittaa
3 stand laattar laatta laatt laattazh leattar leattaa
4 strike tuoxar tuoxa tox tuoxazh tiexar tiexaa
5 place ottar otta ott ottazh ettar ettaa
6 tell d.uucar d.uuca d.uuc d.uucazh d.iicar d.iicaa
7 sow d.uu d.uuzh d.iira d.iina
8 say aalar aala oal oalazh ealar eanna
9 drink malar mala mol molazh mälar männa
10 fight latar lata lat latazh lätar lätaa
11 play louzar louza loudz louzazh leizar leizaa
12 want laar laa lou louzh leir leina
13 call qeikar qeika qeik qeikazh qeikar qeikaa
14 lie allar alla ull ullazh illar illaa
15 fill d.yzar d.yza d.udz d.uzazh d.yzar / d.izar d.yzaa / d.izaa
16 carry qahwar qahwa quhw quhwazh qehwar / qihwar qehwaa / qihwaa

The last four of these conjugation types have only a few members each.

Irregular verbs

There are ten irregular verbs, most of them with suppletive stems in one or the other tense series.
Verbal noun Infinitive Present Present converb Witnessed past Anterior converb
be    ---    --- d.y d.olazh    ---    ---
give d.alar d.ala lu luzh d.älar d.änna
do / make d.u d.ezh d.yr d.ea
see guor / d.our guo gu guzh d.eir d.eina
stay waar wie we wezh wiira wiina
die d.alar d.ala le / lie lezh d.älar d.änna
come d.aar d.aa d.oagha d.oaghazh d.iera d.iena
go d.axar d.uoda d.uodazh d.axar d.axaa
bring d.ahwar d.aa d.ahw d.ahwazh d.iera d.iena
take hwor d.ahwa hwo hwozh d.ehwar d.ehwaa