Karuk Dictionary and Texts
A collaboration between the Karuk Tribe and the University of California, Berkeley

Karuk Dictionary

by William Bright and Susan Gehr (© Karuk Tribe)

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-RED reduplication of a verb root or part of a verb root; forms a verb meaning "to ... repeatedly"

-a deverbative

-aan Agentive

-ach 1 Diminutive (nouns)

-ach 2 Diminutive (verbs)

-aha / -ahi- 1 Essive

-aha / -ahi- 2 Modal

-ahiv time; occasion

-ak 2 Locative; at, in, to

-an Participial

-ap 1 inverse marker used when certain subjects and objects are reversed, in particular when the action is being done to the second person ('you')

-ap 2 marker used for certain subjects and objects with negated verbs

-apa / -apu- Essive

-apuh having been ...-ed

-ar / -an- go in order to

-ar / -ara- 1 having been ...-ed

-ar / -ara- 2 having, characterized by

-ar / -ara- 3 Instrumental; Agentive

-as / -asa- Plural

-at Past tense

-ávak above

-ávan Animate

-avraa over

-avrath into a sweathouse

-avrik in response to motion

-avrin in opposite directions

-áyaachha / -áyaachhi- well, in a good way

-chak closing up

-eep away from (a person)

-êep refuse from ...-ing

-fak / -faku- down from uphill

-fip completely

-fur / -furu- into(?)

-fur / -furu- into(?)

-fúruk into an enclosed space; indoors; inside a living house

-ha / -hi- Denominative

-haak when (relative)

-haan former, ex- (divorced spouse or relative of divorced spouse)

-haar / -haara- including ...; ... and all

-han 1 month of the year

-han 2 Participle

-hanik Ancient tense; long ago

-hara Negative

-heen Anterior tense

-heesh Future tense

-hiich imitation, make-believe

-hiichva imitation, make-believe

-hinva toward

-hipux / -hiipux without

-hírak where