The Gabrielino language was traditionally spoken throughout the Los Angeles basin, to the north in the San Fernando Valley (where it was called "Fernandeño"), and to the east. Today, there are no first-language speakers (Golla 2011).
Gabrielino (also called "Tongva") is a member of the Takic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Within Takic, it is related to Cahuilla, Cupeño, Juaneño, Kitanemuk, Luiseño, Serrano, and Tataviam. The other Uto-Aztecan languages of California are Tubatulabal and the Numic languages (Chemehuevi-Southern Paiute-Ute, Comanche, Kawaiisu, Mono, Northern Paiute, Panamint, and Shoshone).
Selected archival materials at Berkeley
- Golla, Victor. 2011. California Indian languages. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- McCawley, William. 1996. The first Angelinos: The Gabrielino Indians of Los Angeles. Banning, CA: Malki Museum Press.