Main clause word order and pronominalization

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Monotransitive Clauses

A transitive clause with various configurations of pronominal elements:

Full NPs:

Jegaan anafa a Maalik
‘Jegaan hits Maalik’

Object pronominalized:

Jegaan anafan
“Jegaan hits him”

Subject pronominalized:

anafa a Maalik
‘He hits Maalik’

Both pronominalized:

“He hits him”


ten nafun

but NOT

X*ten anafan / X*ten anafun

Pronominal object for all 6 person/numbers:

anafaxam = ‘he hits me’
anafang = ‘he hits you (sg.)’
anafan = ‘he hits him’
anafa ‘in = ‘he hits us’
anafa nuun = ‘he hits you (pl.)’
anafa den = ‘he hits them’

Ditransitive clauses

Both full NPs:

Maalik aci’a a Jegaan obal ole
‘Maalik gives Jegaan the ball’

Pronominalized DO:

Maalik aci’aan a Jegaan
‘Maalik gives it to Jegaan’
OR ‘Maalik gives Jegaan to it’ (semantically odd, but grammatical)

Pronominalized IO:

Maalik aci’aan obal ole
‘Maalik gives him the ball’
OR ‘Maalik gives him to the ball’ (semantically odd, but grammatical)

All pronominalized:

aci’aan oten
‘He gives it to him’

Different IO:

ten ci’axaam oten
‘He gives it to me’

Note: need to check vowel length in -an/-aan and -axam/-axaam suffixes.

Clauses with Adjuncts

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