Serer lexicon

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Note: please update orthography of all rows for which you are listed as first eliciting.

Contents

Nouns

Gloss Singular Plural Noun class (sg, pl.) Alt. Trans. Session Singular Tokens Plural Tokens notes
dog oɓox xaƥox ole, oxe OAD_001 Dog_02.wav, Dogs_01.wav Dog_03.wav, Dogs_03.wav
cat muus muus ne, ke OAD_001 Cat_01.wav, Cats_01.wav Cat_02.wav, Cats_03.wav
bird ndiiƭ tiiƭ ne, ke OAD_001 Bird_03.wav, Birds_02.wav Bird_04.wav, Birds_03.wav
pig ruul atuul le, ake OAD_001 Pig_02.wav, Pigs_01.wav Pig_03.wav, Media:Pigs_02.wav
insect yeeyet yeeyet ne, ke OAD_001 Media:Insect_01.wav Media:Insect_02.wav
spider apoxolac apoxolac ole, ake OAD_001 Media:Spider_03.wav Media:Spider_04.wav
ant ñiiñax ñiiñax ne, ke OAD_001 Ant_03.wav Ant_04.wav
butterfly ofiɗ xapiɗ ole, axe OAD_001 Butterfly_01.wav Butterfly_02.wav
fruit oɓiy xaƥiy ole, axe oɓii OAD_001 Media:fruit_sg1.wav, Media:fruit_sg2.wav, Media:fruit_sg3.wav Media:fruit_pl1.wav, Media:fruit_pl2.wav, Media:fruit_pl3.wav
person okiin wiin oxe, we MF_002 Person_03.wav People_01.wav, People_05.wav
man okoor goor oxe, we MF_002, ED_033 Man_01.wav Men_02.wav
fire fiɗel piɗel fe, ke JM_004
tree ndaxar taxar ne, ke JM_004
town, village saate saate, caate fe, ke JM_004, VW_038
city saate fa maak saate maak (ke) JM_004, VW_038
light leer le, axe JM_004
fence aƭing aƭing ale, ake JM_004 Media:040fence_01.wav
name gon akon le, ake JM_004, VW_038
sap goon  ?, ? JM_004, VW_038
drum famb apamb le, ake JM_004, VW_038 a~ʌ
song akim akim ale, ake JM_004, VW_038
salt ojem xacem  ?, ? JM_004, VW_038
rumor onan xanan ole, axe JH_005 lit. 'instance of hearing'
dance ombec xaƥec JH_005 is this really implosive? We should check -JM On it-OAD
gift cit cit ne, ke JH_005
fish liƥ liƥ JH_005
scale owas xabas JH_005
tail alas alas JH_005, MF_013
fin, spine aƈor JH_005, MF_022 Did not elicit plural
boat suk suk ne, ke JH_005 Did not elicit plural
feather, wing anaf anaf JH_005, MF_013, JM_014 also "leaf"
year oxiid xaqiid VW_006
husband okor gor oxe, we VW_006, ?
baobab tree ƥaak ƥaak ne, ke JH_012, MF_045 Media:045-baobab_01.wav
baobab fruit ɓaak aƥaak le, ake JH_012, MF_045 Media:045-baobab_fruit_02.wav Media:045-baobab_fruits_02.wav
shell, rind oxoƥ xaqoƥ JH_012, KC_007 shell_rind_01, shell_rind_02 Also (tree) bark
forest aqoƥ aqoƥ ale, ake JH_012, OAD_209 see also TextGrid 013
branch anaaq ale, ? JH_012, VW_038 Media:038branch_01.wav No plural elicited
root apaƈ apaƈ JH_012, MF_045 Media:045-root_03.wav
yam xaƥ xaqaƥ JH_012, MF_045 Media:045-yam_01.wav Media:045-yams_01.wav
moss naawos JH_012 No plural
wind aƥay ED_017
milk osis xasis MF_013 Media:013_milk_01.wav Media:013_milks_03.wav
tear ogoonit xakoonit MF_013 Media:013_tear_03.wav Media:013_tears_02.wav as in crying
phlegm, mucus xaaqox MF_013 Media:013_phlegm_02.wav
urine asayid a sayid ale, ake MF_013, OAD_209 Media:013_urine_01.wav derived from "urinate"
feces ɗung MF_013 Media:013_feces_01.wav did not check for plural
feces (pol.) ñaʄlox MF_013 Media:013_feces_polite_03.wav may be more than one word
manure (1) neefaɾe' MF_013 Media:013_manure_02.wav
manure (2) atos MF_013 Media:013_manure_2_02.wav from verb tos
mouse ƈoox ƈoox MF_013 Media:013-mouse_02.wav initial C contrast with "perceive from far off"
meat ndawal tawal MF_013 Media:013_meat_02.wav Media:013_meats_01.wav
fat (as on meat) grees MF_013 Media:013_fat_01.wav Media:013_fat_02.wav Fr. "graisse"
horn ojan xacan MF_013 Media:013_horn_02.wav Media:013_horns_01.wav Also word for side handles on a pot.
hoof ofoxos xapoxos MF_013 Media:013_hoof_01.wav Media:013_hooves_01.wav
wing akand akand MF_013, ED_033 Media:013_wing_01.wav see "shoulder"
bracelet njara jara ? VW_011
woman otew rew oxe, we KC_003 woman_01 women_01
water foofi’ poofi’ le KC_003 water_01 waters_01 also the fluid in a blister
river omaag xamaag ole, axe KC_003, OAD_209 river_01 rivers_01
ocean omaag omaak xamaag xamaak ole, axe KC_003, VW_038, OAD_209 ocean_01 oceans_01
lake ambeel peel ale, ke KC_003, OAD_209 lake_01 lakes_01
cream, oil ‘onew xonew KC_003 oil_cream_01 oils_creams_01
cream, oil oɗuum xaƭuum KC_003 oil_cream_01 oils_creams_02
dirt, sand, land lang lang  ?, ke KC_003, KC_041 DirtSandLand_01 DirtsSandsLands_01
mud loofin lofin KC_003 mud_01
clay ɗok KC_003 clay_01
domesticated animals muumin KN_015 "general" term for livestock/domesticated animals of any type; singular not elicited.
pets cegel KN_015 "personal" term for livestock/domesticated animals; singular not elicited.
lion njogoy cogoy ne, ke KN_015, VW_135 masc. and fem. forms formed with words for "man" and "woman"
sheep mbaal paal KN_015 irregular masc. form; fem. formed with word for "woman"; homophonous with 'fishing net'
ram suk mbaal suk paal KN_015 ‘male sheep’
ewe mbaal ndew KN_015 ‘sheep female’
fishing net mbaal paal KN_015 homophonous with word for 'sheep'
vomit atek MF_022 Media:022-vomit_01.wav
blister yaaf ayaaf MF_022 Media:022-blister_02.wav Media:022-blisters_02.wav
thing used to swim beʄir MF_022 Media:022-thing_for_swimming_01.wav see "to swim"; pl. not elicited
bruise, tender spot dirig atirig MF_022 Media:022-bruise_02.wav Media:022-bruises_01.wav
(big) swelling 'uut a'uut MF_022 Media:022-swelling_01.wav Media:022-swellings_01.wav
wound ɗoy aƭoy MF_022 Media:022-wound_02.wav Media:022-wounds_03.wav E.g. knife wound. Stress varies between initial and final.
break, crack ogef akef ole, ? MF_022 Media:022-crack_01.wav Media:022-cracks_03.wav as in a plate or a piece of wood
cough oqotoox oqotax MF_022, OAD_056 Media:022-to_cough_a_cough_01.wav same as the verb stem, pl. not elicited
snake fangool pangool fe, ? KN_020
rabbit ndool tool KN_020
worm alootit alootit KN_020
bee nguuran kuuran KN_020, ED_033
duck akanaara’ KN_020 no distinct plural form; from Fr. **canard**
elephant fañiik (a)pañiik fe/le, (a)ke KN_020
mosquito ƥook ƥook KN_020
frog faaɓ xapaaɓ KN_020
sun njec NB_009
moon/month onqool xaqool NB_009, VW_054
day ñaal ñaal  ?, ke NB_009
week ñaal/kom ndakooxiidu ñaal/kom takooxiidu NB_009
rain ateƥ  ? NB_009, KC_003
lightning (bolt) oxiiñ xakiiñ definitely [k], prob. /k/ (M. insists) NB_009 singular refers to a single bolt of lightning, plural several
house mbind pind ne, ke NB_009
window ofalanteer xapalanteer ofalanter NB_009 Fr. loan word, **fênetre**
door odon omaax xaton omaax NB_009 lit. 'mouth of the yard'
room andok tok NB_018
kitchen ambaw paw NB_018
hair wil abil pl. awil ? ED_010 hair_01
chest ngang ED_010, ED_033
blood fo’oy le, ? ED_010
spit doxooñ ED_010
belly ofud ED_010
side, rib(s) osaax ED_010 not just side of person
belly button daɓ ataɓ ED_010
leg, foot ojaf acaf ED_010
hip apek apek ED_010
head xoox aqoox le, ake xox VW_006, ED_017, OAD_223
nose oñis xañis ED_017, VW_006
beard oratam xatatam JM_004
tongue, language ɗelem aƭelem JM_004
bone oxiiƈ akiiƈ (pl) ˈhaki:ƈ JH_005
mouth, beak odon xaton (sg) ˈodɵn JH_005, MF_013, ED_017, VW_006
shoulder akand akand JH_005 same word as "wing"
hand, arm oɓay xaƥay ED_017, VW_006
elbow nonong xanonong VW_006
eye akid, angid akid ale, VW_006, ED_017, OAD_176
lip njapko capko njaƥko VW_006, ED_017
ear nof nof  ?, ke VW_006, ED_017
eyelid, eyelash ñooror VW_006, ED_017
eyebrow oɗiiɗiik xaƭiikɗiik check k in pl. VW_006, ED_017
forehead atagid VW_006
finger, toe ngol kol qol (NB) VW_006, ED_017, ED_033, JH_012, VW_038
butt fuƭ apuƭ JH_012 Also (tree) trunk
skin, hide ɗool JH_012 No plural
breast ƭeen ƭeen ne, ke MF_013, OAD_209 Media:013_breast_07.wav Media:013_breast_08.wav
muscle ɗoole' ɗoole' MF_013 Media:013_muscle_01.wav Media:013_muscle_04.wav
biceps oʄoox xaƈoox ole, axe MF_013 Media:013_biceps_01.wav Media:013_biceps_pl_01.wav
nail, claw mbambañ pambañ MF_013, ED_017 Media:013_nail_01.wav Media:013_nails_03.wav "nail" meaning fingernail/toenail
kneecap oro’oy xato’oy VW_011
knee gubay, ngubay kubay VW_011 no good recording
ankle ngubay jara VW_011 lit: "knee bracelet"
stomach, intestine laaw  ?, ke law VW_011
throat(s) apeep --- VW_011
neck ocok xacok ojok ? VW_011
heart(s), lung(s) xeeñ --- VW_011
heel ofaaɗ xaƥaaɗ ole, ? ED_017
love bug OAD_008 Media:Love_01.wav Media:Love_02.wav note the final stop in "urine"/"urinate" as well
happiness ɗay OAD_008 Media:Happiness_01.wav Media:Happiness_03.wav
sadness yudnoox OAD_008 Media:Sadness_01.wav Media:Sadness_02.wav, Media:Sadness_03.wav
swim (n) abeʄ abeƈ MF_022 Media:022-swim_03.wav "an instance of swimming"
young lady otoog JH_023 Age 15-22
old person onogoy JH_023
seedling cimb VW_038
child ondeɓ oxe VW_038, VW_040
field oqol xaqol ole VW_038, KC_007 Media:038field1_01.wav, Media:038field1_02.wav fields_01
glue kol VW_038 Fr. loan
food/life oñoow xañoow JM_014, MF_029 Media:029-food_life_02.wav
food ñamel ñamel JM_014 check length (from verb ñaam)
game faŋas faŋas JM_014
bath ɓogox ɓogox JM_014
bed njoŋg cong JM_014
road aƭat ale JM_014, VW_038 Media:038road_01.wav, Media:038road_02.wav
chair/bench dumbul atumbul le, ? JM_014
something to sit on omoofan JM_014
Sereer person oseereer seereer JM_014
Wolof person o’olof olof JM_014
Fula person opulaane fulaane JM_014
Jola person oƈoola ʄoola JM_014 check voicing of implosive in pl.
Sose person osoose soose JM_014
place ombiñ JM_021
wall myyr myyr ne JM_021
wall tabax JM_021, VW_038 no known diff from maχ
wall max JM_021, VW_038 no known diff from taˈbaχ
yard maax JM_021
termite max JM_021
grave/tomb amboy poy ale JM_021
hyena omoon xamoon JH_039 same as 'bottle'
bottle omoon xamoon JH_039 same as 'hyena'
friend xaarit qaarit JH_039
enemy onoon noon JH_039
stranger okenar genar JH_039
peer okend gend JH_039
fellow traveler oyoon JH_039 also companion, accompanier; did not elicit plural
leader oyaal JH_039 did not elicit plural
trap mbog pog JH_039
thief okuuƭ guuƭ JH_039
thief okuuguuɗ guuguuɗ JH_039
chief omaad JH_039 did not elicit plural
baby ongek xakek JH_039
foreskin osool JH_039 did not elicit plural
apprentice, learner ocaajang JH_039
teacher ocaajangin JH_039
stove/cooking place ndeen teen ne JM_021
table ataabul ale JM_021
book ateere ateere le ateere’ JM_021
religious book akaamir akaamir JM_021
shore, beach tefes tefes fe JM_021, VW_038
line apiis apiis ale, ake JM_021
(chess) piece apis JM_021
dead person oqon xon MF_29, JM_030
corpse odal xatal JM_030
witch/sorcerer onaq JM_030
cow naak naak le JM_030 k or q?
time jaf acaf JM_030 “Time” as in 1 time, 2 times, etc. (Sp. vez)
dry season ƈiid ƈiid JM_030
rainy season ndiig tiig JM_030
pot akaleera akaleera le VW_038, VW_040, MF_045 Media:045-pot_01.wav
blanket mbaj ne, ? VW_024
turtle xomb aqomb KN_031
bat aɗeɓ aɗeɓ KN_031
paper kaˈitʰ OAD_026
bottle omoon OAD_026
rope oƥak xaƥak ole, axe OAD_026, MF_045 Media:045-rope_03.wav Media:045-ropes_01.wav
clothes nirax ñirax KC_025 Clothes_01
sarong paj xa'ɓaj check stop KC_025 Sarong_01, Sarong_02 Sarongs_01
shirt ndoki’ toki’ ne KC_007, JM_062 Shirt_01 Shirts_01 plural of shirt may be synonymous with clothes ? P
shoes (o)ñafaƭ xañafaƭ ole, ? oñafaƭ KC_007 Shoe_01, Shoe_02  ? last voiceless consonant
pants ombap pap KC_007 PantsSG_01, PantsSG_02 PantsPL_01
hat oomaxanda’ xamaxanda’ le, ? long o? ‘? KC_007 Hat_01, Hat_02 Hats_01
sock (o)kawas xakawas KC_007 sock_01, sock_02 socks_01 possible loanword from Wolof or other language
earring (o)looŋlooŋ xalooŋlooŋ -loŋloŋ KC_007 earring_01, earring_02 earrings_01
necklace cek cek KC_007 necklace_01 homophonous with chicken, though chicken requires "an article, a-"
chicken acek KC_007 chicken_01 homophonous with necklace, though chicken requires "an article, a-"
tomorrow ofeet ˈofɛɛƭ KC_025 Tomorrow_01
egg gin akin KC_007 egg_01 eggs_01
seed ‘ax ‘ax KC_007 seed_01
thorn 1 ngiiƈ kiiƈ ne, ? KC_007 thorn_01.wav, thorn_02 thorns_01 final C is voiceless palatal implosive stop?
thorn 2 oxiiƈ kiiƈ OAD_056 this may be a third version of 'thorns'
field osaawiit xasaawiit KC_007 fieldALT_01 fieldsALT_01 alternative to oqol
chaperone ondiik VW_040
outside tafil VW_040 also P "outside of"
wooden bowl, pot oroon xatoon VW_040, KC_041 WoodenBowl_01 WoodenBowls_01, WoodenBowls_02, bigger bowl. do the plural C's sound retroflex?
medium wooden bowl, pot asaxal VW_040 WoodenBowl2_01 smaller bowl. sg same as pl
small wooden bowl, pot asaq VW_054
spoon oɓang xaƥang ole, ? KC_041 Spoon_01 Spoons_01 made from a halved hard tree fruit
spoon akuɗu’ KC_041 Spoon2_01 different from one made from halved hard tree fruit? pl needs to be checked
plate, cover ‘afnir a’afnir KC_041 Plate_01 Plates_01 the plural may be just a classifer plus word initial a?
feast mbuut puut mbuud, puud KC_041 Feast_01 Feasts_01 no voicing, tense t final c? retroflex?
famine ngeex KC_041 Famine_01 no plural, semantically odd, 'when people are starving'
poverty? oñak KC_041 Poverty_01 'when you don't have anything, when poor'
bucket asiwo’ asiwo’ KC_041 Bucket_01 french loanwoard
handle damir odamir sg. tamir KC_041 Handle_01 Handles_01 bucket handle. VOT suggests [d] instead of unaspirated [t]
tied bundle mbof pof ne KC_041 tied_bundle_01 tied_bundles_01 related to V fof that means to hold in ones shirt,clothes extend out? N like a hobo's bundle with corners tied. Elicited instead of 'bag(s)'
ashes ndaw taw KC_041 AshesSG_01 AshesPL_01 plural also is debt for item not paid for in full
mountain, stone ɓil aƥil le KC_041 MtnStone_01 MtnsStones_01 mountain = stone
braid maar xamaar KC_041 Braid_01 Braids_01
cotton ligit KC_041 Cotton_01
forest burnage oñaay JM_048 Not “a forest fire” but an abstract concept
money xaalis xaalis fe, ke JM_048
cow walker oteefanke deefanke xe, we JM_048 Someone hired to walk cows from one place to another after a sale. ke is part of the word, not an article
wood/timber atex atex ale, ake ateex JM_048, MF_075
medicine tex tex teex JM_048, MF_075 Media:075-medicine_teex.wav
firewood ojuƭ xacuƭ long vowel? JM_048, ED_055
lone tree trunk aqool aqool JM_048 Entire trunk with no branches. I've heard that people use these for storage Faytak 07:05, 5 October 2012 (UTC)
bow (weapon) aqali JM_048 doesn’t include arrow
traditional drink onqalax xaxalax JM_048 made with millet, peanuts, baobab fruit, sugar
a trip, going atet atet MF_013, JM_048 in euph. "go to the woods," see 013 TextGrid
slap ombaƭ JM_046
cup (1) okop ole, ? MF_045 Media:045-cup_02.wav Fr. coupe
cup (2) okas MF_045 Media:045-cup(2)_05.wav Fr. tasse (t > k??)
fish hatchling oɓak xaƥak ole MF_045 Media:045-fish_hatchling_02.wav Media:045-fish_hatchlings_03.wav
knife (1) japil capil fe, ke MF_045, KC_77 Media:045-knife(1)_02.wav no pl. elicited
knife (2) nduus MF_045 Media:045-knife(2)_01.wav "shaver," from ruus "to shave"
mango (1) omango MF_045 Media:045-mango(1)_01.wav no pl. elicited
mango (2) omangaro' MF_045 Media:045-mango(2)_04.wav no pl. elicited
mortar ofaƥ xapaƥ ole MF_045 Media:045-mortar_01.wav Media:045-mortars_01.wav for crushing millet; large, kept outdoors
pestle a'un a'un MF_045 Media:045-pestle_02.wav for crushing millet; large, kept outdoors
sieve (1) tame' MF_045 Media:045-sieve(1)_01.wav Fr. tamis, no pl. elicited
sieve, sifter (2) fiɗir MF_045 Media:045-sieve(2)_02.wav no pl. elicited
Péthié pec MF_045 Media:045-pethie_01.wav ML's home village; spelling provided by ML
worker ocaajal jaajal OAD_042 Media:worker_1.wav
reader, studier ocaajaŋg jaajang OAD_042 Media:studier_01.wav
stealer 1 okuuɗ̥ okuuguɗ check final stop OAD_042 Media:stealer_1_1.wav
stealer 2 guuɗ guuguɗ check OAD_042 Media:stealer_2_1.wav
mohawk (circular) duf OAD_042 Media:mohawk_1.wav
planter (1) otuuduf duuduf OAD_042 Media:farmer_1_1.wav
planter (2) oqooxox xooxox OAD_042 Media:farmer_2_1.wav
net mbaal OAD_042 Media:net_1.wav
goat (male) suk fambe s. ˈfambɛʔ OAD_042 Media:male_goat_1.wav
goat (female) fambe rew ˈfambɛʔ r. OAD_042 Media:female_goat_1.wav
sheep (male) suk mbaal OAD_042 Media:male_sheep_1.wav
sheep (female) mbaal rew OAD_042 Media:female_sheep_1.wav
childless goat oding fambe o. ˈfambɛʔ OAD_042 Media:childless_goat_1.wav
baby goat/sheep ombote xapote OAD_042 Media:baby_sheep_1.wav
pebble gac xakac OAD_042 Media:pebble_1.wav
bird ogac xakac OAD_042 Media:special_bird_sg_and_pl.wav a special kind of bird that appears during rainy season (yellow and black feathers)
ring oxeɗ xaqeɗ ole OAD_042 Media:ring_1.wav Media:rings_1.wav
crocodile fanoox apanoox OAD_042 Media:crocodile_1.wav Media:crocodiles_1.wav
gorilla akoong akoong OAD_042 Media:gorilla_1.wav
monkey akoy akoy OAD_042 Media:monkey_1.wav
big male monkey adangin atangin OAD_042 Media:male_monkey_1.wav Media:male_monkeys_1.wav
footpad dang NB_051 bottom of the foot of a dog or canine
ax ɓaax NB_051
hammer omaxto NB_051 Fr. loanword
hammer (o)dajir (xa)tajir NB_051 The forms without the prefixes were judged to be indefinite, or at least not definite. The unprefixed pl., taɟir was judged to be either sg or pl (i.e. not strictly pl). The prefixed forms were the ones that must be used with a postposed article.
hammer (o)dajtir (xa)tajtir NB_051 Smth for beating/hammering something appart, where (o)daɟir is for putting something together. Judgements the same as (o)daɟir/(xa)taɟir
watermelon xaal aqaal ED_055
a mistake kal ED_055
farming aqox ED_055
inlet aqal ED_055
mangrove njas cas ED_055
mangrove seed ofulox xapulox ED_055
a bull nqoox qoox ED_055
camel ngelem kelem ED_055
black pepper poobar MF_047 Media:047-black_pepper_03.wav Fr. poivre, no pl. elicited
coffee kafe kafe fe MF_047 Media:047-coffee_01.wav Fr. café
millet dehusking process sok MF_047 Media:047-dehusking_process_01.wav cf. "dehusk millet", no pl. elicited
garlic laaj laaj MF_047 Media:047-garlic_01.wav word refers to whole head
goat fambe' pambe' le, ke MF_047 Media:047-goat_02.wav Media:047-goats_01.wav
grille, grate for open fire juɗir cuɗir MF_047 grille grilles
hot pepper kaane' kaane'  ?, ke MF_047 Media:047-hot_pepper_01.wav
onion soble' soble'  ?, ke MF_047 Media:047-onion_01.wav
overly energetic person (1) sob MF_047 Media:047-overly_energetic_person_01.wav no pl. elicited
overly energetic person (2) fodaƭar MF_047 Media:047-overly_energetic_person_03.wav no pl. elicited; will re-elicit to clarify second stop's voicing
tea (drink) ataaya ataaya fe, ke MF_047 Media:047-tea_01.wav no pl. elicited
tea (leaves) warga warga fe, ke MF_047 Media:047-tea_leaves_01.wav no pl. elicited
doctor opan fan KC_055 doctor_01 doctors_01
hole oyuul xayuul ole KC_055 hole_01 holes_01
hole (in ground) asemb asemb ale, ake KC_055, JM_92 hole_01
big hole (in ground) ngamb kamb KC_055 hole_01 holes_01 I need to check voicing on final C. once file is uploaded.
bole (big hole in a tree) aƥamb VW_086 no pl. elicited
sickness jiir aciir KC_055 sickness_01 sicknesses_01
wave ayand KC_055 wave_01
family ƥasil ƥasil KC_055 family_01
knot dug atug check stops KC_055 knot_01 knots_01
chick oñuuc  ? OAD_056
jujube (berry) oxiic xakiic check k OAD_056
wind 1 aɓay aɓay OAD_056
wind 2 ngeñ  ? OAD_056 Media:079-wind_ngeñ.wav
sneeze (n) disox  ? disoox OAD_056
coarse millet kiis  ? OAD_056
finding (n) ngis  ? OAD_056
news oqas JM_062
stick oɗong xaƭong ole, ? JM_062
large pile of peanuts ngaƭ kaƭ JM_062
small pile of peanuts ofokat xapokat JM_062
little brother ondeɓ JM_062 also sister??
snake ('crawler') ƥood ED_058
hammock, swing njaayaand caayaand ED_058
limp laƈ ED_065 derived from V laʄ 'to limp'
stump apanq apanq le, ? VW_054 variable with [aˈpaŋg], possibly fang too
belief ongim VW_054
storm ‘und VW_068
bread mbuuru' puuru' ne, ke MF_061 Media:061-bread_02.wav Media:061-breads_01.wav typical loaf is long, dense
bundle sipran asipran osiprand, xasiprand MF_061 Media:061-bundle_01.wav Media:061-bundles_01.wav of millet, two tied half-bundles with untied ends stuck into each other and then tied a third time in the middle
half-bundle xumb qumb MF_061 Media:061-half_bundle_01.wav Media:061-half_bundles_01.wav of millet, bundle of stalks tied at one end; possibly related to χum "to tie"
grain mbep pep MF_061 Media:061-grain_01.wav Media:061-grains_03.wav e.g. millet or rice
honey yuum yuum fe, ke MF_061 Media:061-honey_01.wav
oven fuur fuur, apuur fe, ke MF_061 Media:061-oven_01.wav Media:061-ovens.wav Fr. four
piece, chunk oɓek χaƥek ole, axe MF_061 Media:061-piece_02.wav Media:061-pieces.wav small; used at least for sugar cubes
storage of millet oleer MF_061 Media:061-storage_of_millet_01.wav pl. not elicited; unsure of definition, asking later
sugar suukar suukar fe, ke MF_061 Media:061-sugar_01.wav Fr. sucre; diminutive ˈɲɟuukar, "little bit of sugar"
traditional bread sp. tapalapa tapalapa fe/ne, ke MF_061 Media:061-traditional_bread(2)_01.wav possibly onomatopoetic, see "slapping/clapping sound". also occurs as modifier in ˈmbuuruʔ ˈtapaˈlapa "bread sp."
god roog roog JM_076
mother ya' JM_076
mother yaay JM_076
Senegal senegal JM_076
air ngeñ ngeeñ JM_080
ball obal JM_080
soup sup KC_03
millet ngaaf kaaf ne, ke MF_61
horse pis ? pis  ?, ke JM_62
stone ɗak le KC_77
meal, cooking, dish njaw caw ne, ke OAD_78
baby oxeq unrecorded
doctor doktoor fe JM_92
letter (mail) oleetar ole JM_92
shovel apel apel ale, ake JM_92
star oxoor haqoor hakoor ? KC_055 star_01 stars_01
firefly melenɗuƈan xamelenɗuƈan KC_055 firefly_01 fireflies_01
young man (alt) oofes xoopes ofes, xapes KC_055 youngman_01 youngmen_01
young man owaxambaane xabaxambaane KC_055 youngman_01 youngmen_01
bell oweling habeliŋ oweleng, xabeleng (?) KC_073 bell_01, bell_02 bells_01, bells_02
steam abo' -- ale, ? VW_086
manatee jiinga aciinga le, ake VW_135
manatee leemar leemar ne, ke VW_135
hedgehog goʄ leemar ne, ke VW_135
porcupine siñel siñel/ciñel le, ke VW_135
squirrel ngas ngas ne, ke VW_135
ground squirrel jaɗ acaɗ le, ake VW_135
cheetah aʄaxal xaƈaxal ole, axe VW_135

Numerals

Gloss form Alt. Trans. Sem. Dom Session Sound1 Sound 2 notes
one leng MF_002 Media:One_01.wav Media:One_02.wav
two ƭik, ɗik, ɗak MF_002 Media:Two_02.wav Media:Two_03.wav ƭik is counting form; initial voices and/or changes vowels when quant. certain N
three tadik MF_002 Media:Three_07.wav
four naxiq, naxaq, naxuq MF_002 Media:Four_01.wav Media:Four_04.wav 2nd vowel changes, see session 006
five ƥetik MF_002 Media:Five_02.wav Media:Five_05.wav
six ɓetu fo leng MF_002 Media:Six_03.wav
seven ɓetu ƭik MF_002 Media:Seven_01.wav
eight ɓetu tadik MF_002 Media:Eight_03.wav
nine ɓetu naxik MF_002 Media:Nine_02.wav
ten xarɓaxay MF_002 Media:Ten_02.wav Media:Ten_07.wav

Adjectives and Adverbs

Gloss form Alt. Trans. Sem. Dom. Session Sound1 Sound 2 notes
a lot mayu VW_006 ALot_01
spoiled (food) afot JH_012 don’t think this is an adjective; should be a mass noun
dank axooña JH_012 not adjective?
strong, tough saƭku MF_013 tough_01, tough_04 mod. of "meat," means "sinew" or "gristle"; derived from related V
small new KC_003 small_01
big magin KC_003 big_01 this is a verb, not an adjective
big maak KC_003 see ocean
black ɓaal KN_015
dead oxonu MF_022 as modifies "person"
old nogoyu JH_023
pretty mosu JH_037 "the pretty butterfly" ofiiɗ omosu le
ugly parju parʄu JH_037 "the ugly insect" yeeyet parju ke
red yaxgu JH_037
white ran JH_037
very, a lot aɓax aƥax OAD_026
bitter xaɗ xaaɗ OAD_028 adjective?
delicious felu OAD_028
it's correct/right/normal aƭato JM_014 This is a noun with the “copula-esque” o ending. Not adjective.
a little bit ondik VW_040 basic form?
today xaye JM_014
tomorrow (o)feet JM_014
yesterday faak JM_014
here meek JM_014 also mene VW_071
there (closer) maana JM_014 also meene VW_071
there (far away) maaga JM_014
now ndiiki JM_014, VW_040
second ɗikandeer JM_030
small teɓ JM_030 same as "young" above? Yes (in diff NC)
fast, quickly ñofu ED_065, VW_068
hard apax ED_065 basic form pax?
all fop VW_054
bent tuxdox VW_054 adjective?
curly laxasoxu VW_054
loudly apaax VW_068
loudly tok VW_068 lit. "up"
slowly ondang VW_068 doubled to indicate "progress"
simultaneously/at the same time andoor VW_068 possibly dependent, must be post-verb. This is a verbal extension.
clumsy fodaru VW_068
heavy meɗ OAD_074
light jelet OAD_074
thirsty xoɗam JH_037
already bo ʄut KC_088
completely tapil  ?
teeny-tiny onduʄuƈ MF_075, MF_079 Media:079-teeny_tiny.wav Used to indicate extreme small size. Frequently a phrase with ondeɓ "small": ondeɓ onduʄuƈ. Not ideophonic.
perhaps, maybe xaƈa, xeƈa MF_101 Media:101-question_particle_2_xaƈa.wav Media:101-question_particle_2_var_xeƈa.wav also Q particle

Onomatopoeia

Gloss Variant 1 Variant 2 Session Sound1 Sound 2 notes
cow sound mbu: mba:
sheep sound mbɛ:
slapping/clapping táp MF_061 Media:061-O_clap(1)_01.wav hands clapping, or dough slapping on surface or hands
bell sound kalóŋ kalóŋ kalóŋ kaléŋ kaléŋ kaléŋ KC_073 bellsound_01 bellsound_02
wind sound fff-fff KC_073 windsound_01

Verbs

Gloss Form Derived forms? Alt. Trans. Session Sound1 Sound 2 notes
dance fec JH_005
give ci' JH_005
measure liiƥ JH_005
lead, be in front dox JH_039
share fog JH_039
steal guuɗ JH_039
attend, be present maad JH_039
kill war JH_039
be sick jir JH_039
circumcise/be circumcised xucoox JH_039 Don't know which meaning
enter rok JH_039
hit naf JH_005, ED_033
cultivate xoox VW_006, ED_017
urinate sayid MF_013
perceive from far off ʄook MF_013 Media:013_to_perceive_03.wav any sensory input seems to work
be strong, tough saƭik MF_013 Media:013_be_strong_01.wav see derived ADJ
blow (wind) ɓay ED_017
see ga’ OAD_008 Media:to_see_01.wav
drink yer yeerik OAD_008 Media:to_drink_01.wav
eat ñaam OAD_008 Media:to_eat_01.wav
sit moof OAD_008, JM_014 Media:to_sit_01.wav
look ɗeet ɗeetloox OAD_008 Media:to_look_01.wav
swim weʄ MF_022 Media:022-to_swim_03.wav often with excrescent final vowel
cough oqotoox MF_022 cough_01
vomit dekoox MF_022 Media:022-to_vomit_01.wav
cut ɗeg MF_022 Media:022-to_cut_01.wav
crack, break, explode (intr) gef MF_022 crack_explode_01
hold dam MF_029
take, hold (?) sak MF_029 precise translation unclear
chop (wood) god MF_022 Media:022-to_chop_01.wav final is likely /d/
sleep ɗaan KN_015, MF_029 Media:029-to_sleep_03.wav
transplant a seedling jimb VW_038
pick (a fruit) ɗat JM_014
play ŋas JM_014
have jeg JM_014
draw a line piis JM_021
pick up naq JM_030 q or k? (I think q)
fence (in) ɗing JM_030
rain deɓ JM_030
deshell, shell xobid JM_030, MF_045 Media:045-to_shell_03.wav e.g., of a nut
strip away bark xoƥit JM_030
take a big bite xaƥit JM_030
chew ʄax jax, yax ? JM_030, OAD_042
come gar JM_014, OAD_042 Media:chew_3.wav
draw water from well ʄeew JM_030, KN_031
go toward jof VW_038
be crooked akam ED_033 initial vowel?
cry lool ED_033, MF_029 Media:029-to_cry_01.wav
defecate xoom KN_031
run ʄuf ʄufin 'make run' KN_031, JM_062 der. also "ride," of a horse
wash (laundry) ɗap KC_025 ToWashLaundry_01
wash laxaad KC_025 ToWash_01 washing other things than body, but including hands
wash (body) ɓog KC_025 ToWashBody_01 ToWashBody_02 clip 2 features aspiration on g
cook jaw KC_027, MF_045 tocook_01.wav Media:045-to_cook_02.wav I originally wrote dʒaʋ
dream ɗaad MF_029 Media:029-to_dream_03.wav
hunt xaʄloox JM_046 from stem xaʄ- ?
jump fool JM_046
climb ŋaay JM_046
descend fudoox JM_046
be pregnant fud JM_046
be invincible/impregnable, etc. xox JM_046
slap faɗ JM_046
look for/search waaƭ JM_046
buy jik jikoox 'sell' JM_046
look for, look around wid VW_040
go along, go by way of (e.g. a road) ɓeer VW_040
follow reef reefin 'follow someone' VW_040, JM_062
be ref VW_040, JM_062
stick to ƭap VW_040
hold in shirt,clothes fof KC_041 ToCarryInShirt_01 ToCarryInShirt_02 related to mbof, pof 'tied bundle(s)'
be spicy/burn ñaay JM_048
burn (intr.) ɗox JM_048
give cit JM_048 means the same as ci’
see ɗeet ɗeetlooχ 'notice' JM_048
go ret JM_048
spit doxoñ doxoñoox 'be ~ing' JM_048
land a boat/arrive teer teeroox 'wait for s.o.' JM_048
turn on/light kaƥin JM_048 of lights, appliances, fire, etc.
turn on/light, blow wuɗ JM_048
be ruined by termites wuɗ JM_048 said of wood
burn (intr.) kaƥ JM_048 said of fire, “the fire burns”
say, tell lay JM_048
go home xad JM_048
be clean xool JM_048
make a mistake xal JM_048, ED_055
scold, berate xas xasir 'argue' MF_029 Media:029-to_scold_02.wav Media:029-to_argue_02.wav
fart xaas MF_029 Media:029-to_fart_03.wav
burp xaraɓ MF_029 Media:029-to_burp_01.wav
sneeze disoox MF_029, OAD_056 Media:029-to_sneeze_02.wav
yawn xaɓas MF_029 Media:029-to_yawn_02.wav
be alive ñoow MF_029 Media:029-to_be_alive_04.wav
die, be dead xon MF_029, OAD_042 Media:029-to_die_02.wav, Media:die_1.wav
boil (intr.) waʄ MF_045 Media:045-to_boil_01.wav
fry rosi' MF_045 Media:045-to_fry_02.wav
land, be blown ashore ɓakoox MF_045 Media:045-to_land_02.wav as would a boat; possibly not transitive; may be derived from ɓak "push aside" in the sense that the boat is blown off course
peel ɗel MF_045 Media:045-to_peel_05.wav as in removing a hard rind that adheres to the flesh; contrast with (de)shell above
push aside ɓak MF_045 Media:045-to_push_to_side_02.wav usu. of food on a plate
shave ruus MF_045 Media:045-to_shave_03.wav see "knife (2)"
sift, sieve fiɗ MF_045 Media:045-to_sift_03.wav
farm, plant duf OAD_042 Media:farm_1.wav
tangle (trans.) liw liwit 'untangle' MF_047 Media:047-to_untangle_01.wav no good sound file for liw
be tangled, tangle (intrans.)? liwoox MF_047 Media:047-to_be_tangled_02.wav seemingly less-than-predictable semantics
dip, dunk xooʄ MF_047 Media:047-to_dip_03.wav pl. stem -ɴɢɔɔʄ-
sink (1) mud MF_047 Media:047-to_sink_01.wav
make sink, put into water mudin MF_047 Media:047-to_submerge_03.wav -in may just be overt object marking
drown lab MF_047 Media:047-to_drown_01.wav can be used for both struggling to swim and dying as a result
mix (intr.), to combine jaxas jaxasir 'mix RECP.' MF-047 Media:047-to_mix_01.wav Media:047-to_mix_up_03.wav plain stem seems to refer to an undifferentiated mass; reciprocal to two or more things tangled up with each other
cast, scatter wis MF-047 Media:047-to_cast_01.wav as in throwing seeds or salt
cook over fire juɗ MF-047 Media:047-to_cook_over_fire_02.wav on a grill or rack
dehusk millet sox MF-047 Media:047-to_dehusk_millet_02.wav achieved by grinding
grind millet 'un MF-047 Media:047-to_grind_millet_02.wav cf. "mortar for grinding millet"
pound millet seed heads sug MF-047 Media:047-to_pound_millet_seeds_01.wav in order to remove seeds from seed head
grind ɗok MF-047 Media:047-to_grind_03.wav grinding things other than millet, in small mortar and pestle, indoors
put something in yip MF-047 Media:047-to_put_into_st_02.wav into a container
sprinkle suuy MF-047 Media:047-to_sprinkle_01.wav let particulate matter or liquid fall from hand
tie to, up, around xum xumran 'tie RECP. CAUS.' MF-047 derived form = "tie (trans.) to each other"
knot dug dugran 'knot RECP. CAUS.' MF-047 Media:047-to_tie(2)_02.wav Media:061-to_knot_together_03.wav derived form = "knot (trans.) to each other"
to weed xal ED_055
to bend tuƭ ED_055
to rub duum KC_055
to fly yet OAD_056, MR_069 see derivative "insect"
to make, to do fi’ OAD_056
to know 'and OAD_056
to believe, to sing gim OAD_056
to think 1 yiif OAD_056, MR_069
to think 2 xalat OAD_056, MR_069 Wolof word, but more often used than yiif
to pass, to hand coox OAD_056, JM_92, MF_103
to pass nearby jooŋ OAD_056
find something on the ground gis OAD_056
have mouth full gum JM_062, MF_061 Media:061-to_fill_mouth.wav with water or air
dig gas JM_062 Wolof borrowing
carry on shoulders gadoox JM_062 stem gad- ?
take offense and leave xaadoox JM_062 stem xaad- ?
stay somewhere a few days gaaɗoox JM_062 on the way to somewhere else. stem gaaɗ- ?
combine piles of peanuts gaɗ JM_062
be something refin JM_062 "be something" requires object marking; see "be"
walk ñaaj ñaajin "make walk" JM_062 der. e.g. of a horse
crawl ɓood ED_058
be slippery ɓodax ED_058
bow ʄuug ED_058
lean jay jaayoox 'swing, balance' ED_058 der. has der. "hammock"
somersault xalanqoox ED_058 probably just rolling forward
fall yen ED_058, MR_069
roll (in a bed) firkiloox ED_058 probably rolling over
roll (intr) saanq saanqoox 'be rolling'  ?, ED_058
sprint wat ojor ED_065 likely a serial verb
race da'ƭatir daƭatir ED_065 probably derived
limp laʄ ED_065 cf "limp" (n)
ask for, almost do something lac ED_065
wish, ask xed ED_065
finish paang VW_054
put don VW_054
put into bek VW_054 eg. into a pot
scream wuuq VW_054 Media:054_scream_1.wav
shout xacoox VW_054
renege xac VW_054
dig out ‘ut VW_054 in phrase : ɲɟɛtnɛ aʔuta "sunrise", lit. sun digout. Similar to /‘upit/ ‘un-bury’
lift head/finish/be done ʄut VW_054, VW_068
bow head/bend over ʄuug VW_054
bend over from above yoor ayooroox 'be dangling, hanging from a height' VW_054
ripen fot VW_068
storm ’und VW_068
be clumsy sob VW_068
wake up (intr.), lengthen (intr.) yok yokoox 'be awake, be long' OAD_056, MF_061 Media:061-to_wake_up_01.wav Media:061-to_be_awake_01.wav
to swish xugujaañoox MF_061 Media:061-to_swish_03.wav with liquid in mouth, to clean; stem xugujaañ- ?
read jang JM_076
live somewhere gen JM_076, MF_079 Media:079-to_reside_gen.wav apparently unrelated to geen- forms having to do with standing still/upright
be stood still, halt geenoox JM_076, MF_079 Media:079-to_stand_still_geenoox.wav
to stop (trans.) geenin MF_079 Media:079-to_stop_someone_geenin.wav unclear if -in is just object marking
to lie fen MR_069
to float xumb MR_069 also "to be bustling, joyous" when of a gathering
for night to fall yeŋ MR_069
fall sam MR_069 only for inanimates
pant xaƈ unrecorded like a dog
pounce on food xaaf unrecorded
tell a joke xaf unrecorded
crouch like an animal goopnoox unrecorded
estimate xap unrecorded
believe xooloox unrecorded
exonerate xooloox unrecorded
CHUG xoloox unrecorded
kick fal JM_092
give cooɗ JM_092 semantically the same as /ci’/
bury ‘uup 'upit 'unbury' JM_092 note the unexpected vowel shortening in der.
scratch ñaxañ KN_070
be wet xuƥ xuƥanda 'make wet' MF_075 Media:075-to_be_wet_xuƥ.wav with -and-oox, "wet oneself"
be dry weer weeranda 'make dry' MF_079 Media:079-to_be_dry_weer.wav with -and-oox, "dry oneself"
be (too) big, long xup xupanda 'make big, long' MF_075 Media:075-to_be_big_long_xup.wav
lift yoɗ yoɗoox 'lift self, be lifted' MF_079 Media:079-to_raise_to_lift_yoɗ.wav der.: object is raising of its own accord, or with no force acting on it?
be roused, arise 'in 'inoox MF_079 no good recording semantics of derivation unclear, hope to clarify
dry in sun, expose to sun liil liiloox 'expose self, be exposed' MF_079 Media:079-to_dry_in_sun_liil.wav Media:079-to_dry_oneself_in_sun_liiloox.wav semantics of der. unclear, hope to clarify
sadden yuɗ yuɗnoox 'be saddening' MF_079 Media:079-to_sadden_yuɗ.wav Media:079-to_be_saddening_yuɗnoox.wav semantics unclear, hope to clarify
wipe forit fortoox 'to wipe oneself' MF_079 Media:079-to_wipe_forit.wav Media:079-to_wipe_self_down_fortoox.wav
to pick up meeɓ MF_079 Media:079-to_pick_up_meeɓ.wav
twist around wid VW_040
go toward jof VW_024
be near mat VW_024
be far goƭ VW_024
come from xat VW_068, MF_103 Media:103-to-come-from_xat.wav
come from inoor VW_068, MF_103 Media:103-to_come_from_inoor.wav
open wet wetoox 'open self, be open' MF_091 no good sound file
close weg wegoox 'close self, be closed' MF_091 Media:091-to_close_weg.wav
put in jail wegnoor MF_091 Media:091-to_make_close_wegnoor.wav literally "to make close"; unpredictable/idiomatic semantics
happen suddenly gid MF_091 Media:091-to_happen_suddenly_gid.wav can occur as first verb in a series, e.g. agida wetoox "it closes suddenly"
put to sleep yeeɓ VW_071
hug, hold, attack song VW_071
hug, wrap around laxas VW_071
hug kirmoox VW_071
enflame boy VW_086
be first dox VW_097
pierce yuul VW_097
grab to one's side sax VW_097 like in wrestling, to grab and pull toward your side
bark, howl wox VW_110
be doleful goy VW_110
be facing faam VW_110
escape, lead (in a race) daɗ MF_103 Media:101-to_escape_to_lead_in_race_daɗ.wav
be cause of tax MF_103 Media:101-to_cause_be_cause_of_tax.wav
hold in emotion muñ MF_103 Media:103-to_hold_in_emotion_muñ.wav will probably check this one
try jeem off the record
be first adoox VW_135
arbitrate, debate layoor VW_135
agree nanoor VW_135
be deep xooɗ MF_115 Media:115-deep_xooɗ.wav
quiet (down), shut up tiim MF_115 Media:115-quiet_down_shut_up_tiim.wav
be quiet, stable, safe fod fodeer(na) 'be clumsy' VW_068, MF_115 Media:115-be_quiet_stable_fod.wav complex form is inflected (-na) probably
be invincible xox VW_006
be senile naaxax VW_038
be cold (to the touch) ɓuuɓ VW_038 Media:038cold(totouch)_01.wav
cold (feeling) jogon VW_038
cold (to the touch) ɓut VW_038
be hot sum VW_040

Pronouns

Gloss form Alt. Trans. Sem. Dom. Session Sound 1 Sound 2
I mi' OAD_008 Media:I_01.wav
you.sg wo' OAD_008 Media:you_sg_01.wav, Media:you_sg_02.wav
he, she, it ten OAD_008 Media:she_he_01.wav
we ino' OAD_008 Media:we_01.wav, Media:we_03.wav
you.pl nuun OAD_008 Media:you_pl_01.wav, Media:you_pl_02.wav
they den, deno' OAD_008 Media:they_01.wav, Media:they_02.wav

Adpositions

Gloss form Alt. Trans. Post? Session Sound 1 Sound2 Notes
at no, na VW_054 eg. noboχolɛ "at the dog"
with fo VW_054 fo ɟapil "with the knife", fo otɛo "with the woman"
in/inside kam JM_021, VW_040
near/by/next to pam pam JM_021, VW_040 pam ⁿdaχarnɛ "by the tree"
over/above/on/up tok JM_021, VW_040 used also as adv. "up"
under ɗoxang ɗoxang JM_021 ɗoxang mbajne "under the blanket"
inside/in between/in the middle (plural) andeer JM_012, VW_040
amidst/between/surrounded by/inside ndeer VW_024 ndeer taxarke "amidst the trees"
between, in the middle between (2 things) ndeender VW_024 ndeender taxarke "between the (two) trees"
in front of mbaambir JM_021, VW_054
in front of adox VW_038 (JH_039) derived from "leader" N
behind/after acinj JM_021, VW_040 acinᶮɟ ᵐbinɛ "behind the house"
behind kataa VW_040
outside tafil VW_040 also N "outside"

Miscellany

Gloss form Alt. Trans. Sem. Dom. Session Sound 1 Sound 2
greeting nam fiyo MF_002 Media:Hello_02.wav
greeting (contracted) namo MF_002 Media:Hello_short_03.wav
thank you joo kanjal MF_002 Media:Thankyou_03.wav Media:Thankyou_04.wav
response to thanks ino mbogun MF_002 Media:Youre_welcome_05.wav Media:Youre_welcome_04.wav
response to greeting mexe men MF_002 Media:Response_to_hello_04.wav
yes ii, iiyo OAD_008
Q particle ndax MF_101 Media:101-question_particle_ndax.wav
Q particle xaƈa, xeƈa MF_101 Media:101-question_particle_2_xaƈa.wav Media:101-question_particle_2_var_xeƈa.wav also ADV "perhaps"

Names

Gloss form Alt. Trans. Sem. Dom. Session Sound 1 Sound 2
Male name Maalik lots
Male name Jegaan
Male name Elaaʒi
Male name Ibrahima
Nickname Aas
Female name Yande
Personal tools