Spectrograms and Audio Samples of Consonants

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This page provides sample spectrograms and audio clips for the consonants found in Serer.

Contents

Plosives

Labial

The following labial plosives all appear in word-initial position:

  • ᵐb

File:Spectrogram_mb.PNG

  • p

File:Spectrogram_p.PNG

  • ɓ

File:Spectrogram_implosive_b.PNG

(Note the disruption in the voicing immediately after the release.)

  • ƥ

File:Spectrogram_implosive_p.PNG

(Note the distortion in the voicing immediately after the release. While this disruption is less pronounced than that of /ɓ/, it is more noticeable when compared to the lack of disruption or distortion in /p/.)


Alveolar

Intensity plots are shown in yellow in this section. (These can be useful for distinguishing between the implosives and the non-implosives.) Note that some images show more of a spectrogram than others: some stop closures are much longer than others, especially the prenasalized and voiced implosive stops.

Initial [t] from [tiit] "birds": Media:Birds_03.wav (first token)

File:Initial-t.png

Initial [d] from [diɾig] "bruise": Media:022-bruise_02.wav

File:Initial-d.png

Initial [ƭ] from [ƭɛɛn] "breast": Media:013_breast_07.wav

File:Initial-imp-t.png

Initial [ɗ] from [ɗɔɔlɛʔ] "muscle": Media:013_muscle_01.wav

File:Initial-imp-d.png

Initial [nd] from [ndawal] "meat": Media:013_meat_02.wav

File:Initial-nd.png

Palatal

Velar

Affricates?

Fricatives

Other

Whole-word spectrograms

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