Derivational Verbal Morphology

From Sereer wiki

Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

Overview

Derivational morphemes in Sereer are highly productive, and almost always occur immediately after the verb root, inside of inflectional morphology. Only two types of V>N derivative morphemes are not suffixing.

There are several sub-categories of derivational affixes in Sereer:

Takes verb, makes verb ("extensions"):

  • -noor: causative. Adds an causative object. (lay "talk" --> laynoor "make someone talk")
  • -(i)n: causative. Adds a causative object (mud "sink (intr.)" --> mudin "submerge")
  • -and: causative. Affixed only to intransitive verbs (weer "be dry" --> weerand "make dry")
  • -oox: stative/reflexive. Valence decreasing; eliminates the direct object (bog "wash something" --> bogoox "be washed / wash oneself")
  • -an: benefactive applicative. Licenses an additional argument, a beneficiary (ʄeew "draw water" --> ʄeewan "draw water for someone")
  • -(i)t: instrumental applicative. Licenses an additional argument, an instrument (waq "dig" --> waqit "dig with something")
  • -(i)t: locative applicative. Licenses an additional argument, a location (ñaam "eat" --> ñaamit "eat somewhere")
  • -(i)r: reciprocal (xum "tie" --> xumir "tie each other")
  • -(i)k: itive. Indicates directed motion away from the starting point ("to go do X") (naf "hit" --> nafik "go hit")
  • -iid: venitive. Indicates motion towards ("to come to X") (ɗaan "sleep" --> ɗaaniid "come to sleep")
  • -andoor: simulfactive. Indicates that the action is done all at once (weg "close" --> wegandoor "close all at once")
  • -(i)t: reversive ('up "bury" --> 'upit "unbury")
  • -aƭ: indicates that an action is done carefully or slowly (moof "sit" --> moofaƭ "sit carefully/slowly")
  • -aƭar: indicates that an action is done poorly or not at all (ʄuf "run" ʄufaƭar "not run / run poorly")
  • -at: indicates that an action is performed repeatedly, or not any more. Used only for unrealized actions.
  • -loox/-noox: unclear/inconsistent meaning. Unproductive.

For examples of verbs with extensions, see a chart of derived verbs here.

Takes verb, makes adjective:

  • -u , a suffix that takes a verb and turns it into an adjective (e.g. saɗik "to be strong, tough" -> saɗku "strong, tough"; may "to be many" -> mayu "many")

Takes verb, makes noun:

  • -ir, a suffix that makes instrument-type nouns from verb stems (e.g. βɛʄ "to swim" --> bɛʄir "thing used to swim")
  • RED-, prefixing partial reduplication: makes a noun from a verb "X" meaning "one who (habitually) X"
  • NC- + mutation(s), forms a deverbal noun.

Valence-Changing Extensions

Causative

There are at least three causative extensions, -in/-n, -noor, and -and. These extensions increase the valence of a verb, adding a causative object, which is caused to perform the action of the verb by the subject of the causative verb.

-noor

-Noor seems to be most productive, and can be affixed to most (if not all?) verbs.

Unextended verb:

  1. Miñaan a fala naak le
    Miñaan a fal -a naak le Miñaan 3 kick -FV cow DET
    'M. kicks the cow'

Causative verb:

  1. Miñaan a falnoora (a) Yande naak le
    Miñaan a fal -noor -a (a) Yande naak le Miñaan 3 kick -CAUS -FV (OBJ) Yande cow DET
    'M. makes Y. kick the cow'

The causative object (when not pronominalized) always appears directly after the verb.

  1. Miñaan a falnoora naak le (a) Yande
    Miñaan a fal -noor -a naak le (a) Yande Miñaan 3 kick -CAUS -FV cow DET (OBJ) Yande
    'M. makes the cow kick Y.'
    '*M. makes Y. kick the cow'

-in/-n

The extension -in/-n functions in the same way, but its distribution is lexically conditioned.

Unextended verb:

  1. pis ne a ʄufa
    pis ne a ʄuf -a horse DET 3 run -FV
    'the horse runs'

Causative verb:

  1. ʄufnaam pis ne
    ʄuf -n -aa -m pis ne run -CAUS -FV -1s horse DET
    'I make the horse run'

-and

The extension -and can be applied to some (or all?) verbs roots that are basically (that is, in their unextended form) stative.

Unextended verb:

  1. xuƥaam
    xuƥ -aa -m wet -FV -1s
    'I am wet'

Causative verb:

  1. ateƥ a xuƥandaxam
    ateƥ a xuƥ -and -ax -a -m rain 3 wet -CAUS -AX -FV -1s
    'The rain wets me / causes me to be wet'

Stative/Reflexive

The suffix -oox is commonly used to express reflexive meaning.

  1. Ami aɓoga
    Ami a- bog -a Amie 3- wash -FV
    'Amie washes (something else)'
  1. Ami aɓogooxa
    Ami a- bog -oox -a Amie 3- wash -REFL -FV
    'Amie washes herself'

The stative extension -oox decreases the valence of a transitive verb. The resulting interpretation be either an unaccusative event or the resultative state from the change of state denoted by the verb root.

Unextended verb: subject = 'I', object = 'window'

  1. wegaam ofalanter ole
    weg -aa -m ofalanter ole close -FV -1s window DET
    'I close the window'

Stative verb: subject = 'window'

  1. ofalanter ole a wegooxa
    ofalanter ole a weg -oox -a window DET 3 close -STAT -FV
    'The window is closed'

The extension -oox can also be used with (some) intransitive verbs to indicate that they are performed repeatedly, though this interpretation is optional.

Unextended verb:

  1. a doxoña
    a doxoñ -a 3 spit -FV
    'he spits (once)'

Stative verb:

  1. a doxoñooxa
    a doxoñ -oox -a 3 spit -STAT -FV
    'he spits (repeatedly)'

Benefactive Applicative

The benefactive applicative extension -an increases the valence of the verb, adding an object which functions semantically as the beneficiary.

Unextended verb:

  1. Jegaan a fala naak le
    Jegaan a fal -a naak le Jegaan 3 kick -FV cow DET
    'Jegaan kicks the cow'

Benefactive verb:

  1. Jegaan a falana naak le a doktoor fe
    Jegaan a fal -an -a naak le a doktoor fe Jegaan 3 kick -BEN -FV cow DET OBJ doctor DET
    'Jegaan kicks the cow for the doctor'
OR
  1. Jegaan a falana a doktoor fe naak le
    Jegaan a fal -an -a a doktoor fe naak le Jegaan 3 kick -BEN -FV OBJ doctor DET cow DET
    'Jegaan kicks the cow for the doctor'

Instrumental Applicative

The instrumental applicative extension -it/-t increases the valence of the verb, adding an object that functions semantically as the instrument. Without the instrumental applicative, instruments are obligatorily marked with fo 'with'; this can be omitted if the instrumental applicative is affixed to the verb, but is sometimes still used in conjunction with the applicative.

Unextended verb:

  1. waqaam asemb ale (fapel ale)
    waq -aa -m asemb ale (f- apel ale) dig -FV -1s hole DET (with shovel DET)
    'I dig the hole (with a shovel)'

Instrumental verb:

  1. waqtaam asemb ale (f)apel ale
    waq -t -aa -m asemb ale (f-) apel ale dig -INST -FV -1s hole DET (with) shovel DET
    'I dig the hole with the shovel'
OR
  1. waqtaam (f)apel ale asemb ale
    waq -t -aa -m (f-) apel ale asemb ale dig -INST -FV -1s (with) shovel DET hole DET
    'I dig the hole with the shovel'

Locative Applicative

The locative applicative extension -it/-t requires that an action take place at a location. This location is expressed as an object of the verb, though in some sentences it can optionally be introduced by the preposition no.

Unextended verb:

  1. ñaamaam
    ñaam -aa -m eat -FV -1s
    'I eat'

Locative verb:

  1. norestoran fe ñaamtaam
    n- orestoran fe ñaam -t -aa -m in restaurant DET eat -LOC -FV -1s
    'I eat in/at the restaurant'

Reciprocal

The reciprocal extension -ir/-r is used for actions performed by multiple people on each other, or together with each other.

Unextended verb:

  1. i nafa naak le
    i naf -a naak le 1p hit -FV cow DET
    'we hit the cow'

Reciprocal verb:

  1. i nafra
    gll\ i naf -r -a
    1p hit -RECIP -FV
    'we hit each other'

It is possible for reciprocal verbs to take a singular subject, in which case an additional participant must be introduced with the preposition fo

  1. nafraam fo ten
    naf -r -aa -m fo ten hit -RECIP -FV -1s with him
    'He and I hit each other'

Passive

The passive marker -e' eliminates the object of a transitive verb, with the subject being acted on by the verb. Unlike with the stative extension, there is an implication of agentivity, though it is not possible to express the agent in a passive clause. This suffix appears to not truly be an extension, as it is takes the place of inflection morphology (the "Final Vowel" -a), rather than simply being affixed to the verb root.

  1. nafe'
    naf -e' hit -PASS.2s
    You are hit
  1. naf'e'
    naf -' -e' hit -PST -PASS.2s
    'You were hit'

Other Extensions

Itive

The itive extension -ik/-k indicates motion away from the starting point.

Unextended verb:

  1. mexe wegaa ofalanter ole
    me- xe weg -aa ofalanter ole 1s- COP close -PROG window DET
    'I’m closing the window'

Itive verb:

  1. mexe wegkaa ofalanter ole
    me- xe weg -k -aa ofalanter ole 1s- COP close -ABL -PROG window DET
    'I’m going to close the window'

It can also express future actions. Thus, the above example is ambiguous between a future and motion interpretation (as is the English gloss).

This appears to be the only extension that can consistently occur in multiple positions, and can even appear multiple times in a single verb, with no apparent change in meaning. All three of these sentences have the same meaning, and are equally natural:

  1. foolnoorkaanum
    fool -noor -k -aa -n -um jump -CAUS -ABL -FV -OBJ.3s -1s
    'I make him go and jump'
    'I go make him jump'
  1. fooliknooraanum
    fool -ik -noor -aa -n -um jump -ABL -CAUS -FV -OBJ.3s -1s
    'ditto'
  1. fooliknoorkaanum
    fool -ik -noor -k -aa -n -um jump -ABL -CAUS -ABL -FV -OBJ.3s -1s
    'ditto'

Venitive

The venitive extension -iid indicates motion towards.

Unextended verb:

  1. ɗaani meek
    ɗaan -i meek sleep -IMPER.2s here
    'sleep here!'

Venitive verb:

  1. ɗaaniidi meek
    ɗaan -iid -i meek sleep -ALL -IMPER.2s here
    'come sleep here!'

-iid can also have an interpretation of "to be about to do something"

  1. a 'andiida Berkeley
    a 'and -iid -a Berkeley 3 know -ALL -FV Berkeley
    'He's coming (motion) to know Berkeley'

    'He's coming/getting to know Berkeley (day by day)'

Simulfactive

The extension -andoor indicates that the action of a verb is done all at once.

Unextended verb:

  1. a wega xapalanter axe
    a weg -a xa- palanter axe 3 close -FV pl- window DET
    'He closes the windows'

Simulfactive verb:

  1. a wegandoora xapalanter axe
    a weg -andoor -a xa- palanter axe 3 close -SIMUL -FV pl- window DET
    'He closes the windows all at once'

Reversive

The reversive extension -it/-t indicates that the action of the verb is undone.

Unextended verb:

  1. mexe liwaa
    me- xe liw -aa 1s- COP tanfle -PROG
    'I’m tangling'

Reversive verb:

  1. mexe liwtaa
    me- xe liw -t -aa 1s- COP tangle -REV -PROG
    'I’m untangling'

This extension is unpredictably fossilized in certain verbs, e.g. wet- ‘open’ vs. weg- ‘close.’

-aƭ and -aƭar

The extension -aƭ indicates that an action is done slowly or carefully.

  1. layaƭi
    lay -aƭ -i speak -CARE -IMPER.2s
    'speak carefully!'
  1. nafaƭi
    naf -aƭ -i hit -CARE -IMPER.2s
    'don't hit too hard'

-aƭar is the negative version of this extension, though it is not simply -aƭ with regular negative morphology. -aƭar indicates that an action is done poorly or not at all.

  1. pis um ne a ʄufaƭara
    pis um ne a ʄuf -aƭar -a horse his DET 3 fun -CARE.NEG -FV
    'his horse didn't run'
    OR
    'his horse doesn't run well'

-loox

Two uses: by itself "do on the side" or as a secondary task

a-xe jaw-aa, jang-loox-aa
"he's cooking, reading on the side"


With reduplication: pretend to do something.

ram "be deaf"
ram-ram-loox "pretend to be deaf"


This construction is also seen in wolof:

tex "be deaf" (Wolof)
tex-tex-lu "pretend to be deaf" (Wolof)


The Sereer construction may be borrowed from Wolof (or perhaps the other way around).

Co-occurrence of Extensions

Homophonous extensions can occur adjacently to one another with very little restriction, other than general phonotactics. In the example below, affix order is actually unclear, as the reversive and instrumental applicative could be in the order listed or reversed.

a uuptita apel ale.
a uup -t -it -a a- pel ale
3SG bury REV INST.APP 3SG NC shovel DET.NC
S/he unburies with a shovel. (092)

Valence-changing suffixes (like -noor below) seem to occur closer to the verb stem than others (like -k below), which appear to occur inside of inflectional morphology without exception.

wegaanum.
weg -aan -um
close 3SG.OBJ 1SG
I close it. (091)
wegnoorkaanum.
weg -noor -k -aan -um
close CAUS ITV 3SG.OBJ 1SG
I make him go to jail. (lit. make him go to close up) (091)

Multiple suffix marking

Some verbs with a large amount of derivational morphology are multiply marked with certain applicative extensions. In (1), for instance, -ik 'itivetive' is marked twice, once immediately after the stem and another time immediately before the inflectional morphology. In (2) and (3), -it 'locative applicative' and -ik are marked twice (respectively), with considerably more intervening derivational morphology. These examples seem to suggest that the very end of the derivational morphology complex, immediately before the "default vowel" and the inflectional morphology complex, is the primary site for this affix doubling.

  1. fooliknoorkaanum.
    fool -ik -noor -k -a -an -um jump ITI CAUS ITI DV 3S.OBJ 1S.SBJ
    'I make him go jump. (130)'
  1. a uptiktirooxta apel.
    a= up -t -ik -t -ir -oox -t -a a- pel 3P.SBJ bury REV ITI INST RECP REFL INST DV NC shovel
    'They go unbury each other with shovels. (122)'
  1. a uptiktirooxka apel.
    a= up -t -ik -t -ir -oox -k -a a- pel 3P.SBJ bury REV ITI INST RECP REFL ITI DV NC shovel
    'They go unbury each other with shovels. (122)'

It is unclear what motivates this multiple suffixation, although it is probable in certain cases that this multiple usage could be thought of as "resumptive"--- the relevant suffixes occur twice, once in their usual position and again in closer proximity to the licensed argument.

Personal tools