James Collins (Stanford)
The mysterious case of disappearing indefiniteness: indefinite and definite patients in Tagalog
I discuss the semantics of Tagalog transitive patient NPs and the interaction of indefiniteness with verbal morphology and word order. In Tagalog verb-initial sentences, the verbal infix -um- is associated with non-specific transitive patients, while the verbal infix -in- is associated with definite transitive patients. However, in agent-initial sentences, the verbal infix -um- is obligatory and the infix -in- is ungrammatical via the morphosyntactic constraints of the Philippine-type symmetrical voice system (Schachter and Otanes 1984 a.o.). Although -um- is associated with indefinite patients in verb-initial sentences, -um- may be associated with either indefinite or definite patients in agent-initial sentences. The indefinite restriction on the patient of the -um-infixed verb disappears in agent-initial sentences.
Previous accounts of this phenomenon have been syntactic in nature (Rackowski 2002, Aldridge 2005) associating the syntactic position of a noun phrase with its (in)definiteness. However, the extant syntactic accounts rely on non-standard syntactic and semantic assumptions in order to link the syntactic position of the patient with the syntactic position of the agent. I suggest an alternative approach -- the paradigm falls out straightfowardly from neo-Gricean pragmatics.
Under my account, -in- forces a definite interpretation of the transitive patient, while -um- underdetermines whether the transitive patient is definite or indefinite. In a verb-initial sentence, the speaker may choose either affix. In interpreting the utterance of a sentence with the infix -um-, the hearer reasons that if the speaker had intended to convey a definite interpretation of the patient, the speaker could have chosen the unambiguously definite infix -in-. As she chose not to use -in-, the hearer reasons that the speaker must intend an indefinite interpretation of the patient. In an agent-initial sentence, the speaker only has -um- available to her (by Tagalog morphosyntactic constraints). Thus, the hearer can no longer assume that the speaker could have uttered the alternative sentence with -in-. Thus, the pragmatic reasoning doesn't go through. The conventional meaning of -um- is not pragmatically enriched, and is compatible with either an indefinite or definite interpretation.
Ryan Bochnak (UCB)
Special joint meeting with Meaning Sciences: Zoltán Gendler Szabó (Yale)
This paper is a defense of substantive explanations in semantics. I begin by offering a diagnosis of why the view that semantic theories are merely descriptive has been so widely accepted and I suggest that these grounds are not compelling. Then I argue that semantic explanations don’t have a uniform direction – upwards or downwards the syntactic tree. There is an explanatory division within the lexicon: the meanings of content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) are semantically fundamental, while the meanings of function words (auxiliaries, connectives, copulas, derivational morphemes, determiners, expletives, prepositions, etc.) are derivative.
Link to paper
Note: This meeting will be held at a special place and time: Friday 4–5:30pm, 234 Moses Hall
Erik Zyman (UCSC)
Quantifier Float and the Driving Force for Movement: Evidence from Janitzio P’urhepecha
Many languages display the well-known quantifier float alternation:
(1a) All the walruses are painting.
(1b) The walruses are all painting.
Two main types of analyses of quantifier float have been proposed. On stranding analyses (Sportiche 1988, a.o.), (1b) underlyingly contains a nominal all the walruses, but the walruses moves out of this phrase, stranding all. On adverbial analyses (Torrego 1996, Benmamoun 1999, a.o.), all in (1b) is not a stranded adnominal quantifier but an adverbial element adjoined to some clausal projection.
I investigate this phenomenon in P’urhepecha, an isolate of central-western Mexico spoken mainly in the state of Michoacán, and specifically in the variety spoken on the island of Janitzio on Lake Pátzcuaro. In this language, the distribution of floating quantifiers tracks that of ordinary nominals extremely faithfully—a situation predicted by stranding analyses but unexpected on adverbial analyses. Some data involving Subject Condition effects initially seem to favor an adverbial analysis; but I argue that, despite this appearance, the facts of Janitzio P’urhepecha quantifier float strongly support a stranding analysis for this language, posing a challenge to “adverbial adjunction only” analyses of quantifier float.
Finally, having argued that quantifier float in Janitzio P’urhepecha comes about when a quantifier is stranded by its associate DP, I turn to the question of what drives DP movement generally in this language. I argue that the facts of DP movement in Janitzio P’urhepecha provide strong evidence for altruistic (target-driven) movement, and therefore constitute a challenge for analyses of movement (e.g., Bošković 2007) on which all movement is greedy.
Vera Gribanova (Stanford): The Verbal Identity Condition in ellipsis: Consequences for head movement
Kenny Baclawski (UCB): Topic and Focus Fronting in Cham
Maria Khachaturyan (UCB Anthropology)
Reflexives in Mano: less about syntax, more about pragmatics
In this paper I will analyse the syntax and semantics of reflexive markers in Mano (Mande < Niger-Congo). I will try to show that syntactic structure doesn't necessarily predetermine their distribution: other parameters, such as linear precedence and discursive prominence, are in play.
I will begin by the distribution of reflexive markers, I will study local and distant usages with subject controller. I will then show that the subject is not the only possible controller, and, more interestingly, that antecedents lower in the syntactic hierarchy than their anaphors can control reflexivity. I will show that linear precedence may play a more important role than syntactic structure.
I will then show examples of local reflexives used distantly. I will explain them by high discursive prominence of the referents, and show some typological parallels of the same phenomenon.
I will then turn to the distribution of simple and complex reflexive markers. Mano has a 3sg reflexive marker (ē); other persons and numbers don't have designated reflexive markers, but pronouns can also be used reflexively. Intensifier dìè is used to form complex reflexive markers (such as ē dìè). In fact, some verbs used in reflexive construction don't combine with simple markers, only with complex markers; some allow both. I will explain it by semantic particularities of the verbs. My functional explanation with be based on pragmatic factors (the speaker corrects listener's attention with the help of intensifier added to the structure of reflexive marker), in line with some typological literature on intensifiers.
Sophia Dandelet (UCB Philosophy):
A partial semantics for talking about partial desires
Sally eyes the last piece of apple pie. There is a part of her that wants to eat it, because it looks delicious. But there is another part of her that doesn’t want to eat it, since she believes that it would be rude to take the last slice of pie.
This paper is about sentences that report on desires like Sally’s. More precisely, it is about apparently contradictory desire reports — like “x wants p and x doesn’t want p,” or “x wants p and x wants q, but x doesn’t want both p and q” — and how we can make sense of them, from a philosophical and a linguistic perspective.
I begin by showing how the standard semantics for wants fails to make sense of these examples. Then, I develop an alternative analysis that makes the desired predictions for apparently contradictory desire reports. This semantics differs from its predecessors in two important respects. First, it assumes a situation-theoretic framework instead of the standard possible worlds framework. Second, it is sensitive to a parameter that allows us to set aside certain situations for the purposes of evaluating wants claims. I conclude by noting that my linguistic proposal points towards a philosophical understanding of desire on which wants may be held, so to speak, by parts of an agent — parts that take into account some of the questions and possibilities that the “whole” agent is concerned with, but ignore others.
Trio of Talks
Richard Rhodes (UCB) on Ojibwe bipartite verb structure and valence
Spencer Lamoureux (UCB): Multiple Copy Spell-Out as Constraint Interaction in Wandala (Central Chadic)
Nico Baier (UCB): An Overview of Cross-Linguistic Variation in Anti-Agreement
Syntax Circle Round Robin:
Everyone who wants to can have up to X number of minutes to discuss anything they want to related to syntax/semantics, such as an idea, a question, a problem, a controversy, or an interesting theory (where X = a number between 5 and 10, depending on how many people want to talk). Names will be drawn from a hat, so the order of turns is random. Share whatever's been on your mind!